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F 392E1 "^Lm" ""'""'"^ ^"""^ 


3 1924 028 801 310 

The original of tliis book is in 
tine Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 924028801 31 

Cisco, Texas 


Eastland County 




A. D. Aldridge & Co., Stationers, Printers and Book Binders 

1904 \ 



Mrs. Geobge JLangston. 











PERIOD 1—1858-1873. 

Chapter I. 
Chapter II. 
Chapter III. 
Chapter IV. 
Chapter V. 

Chapter VI. 

Chapter VII. 
Chapter VIII. 

Chapter IX. 


The New County. 
The First Settlers. 
Indian Tribes. 
"Charge, Boys, Charge!" 

1. Forted Ranches and Incidents of 

the Times. 

2. The First Wedding. 

1. An Indian Race. 

2. A Turkey Hunt. 

3. The Lost Arrow Head. 

In War Times. 

Some Indian Fights. 

1. Ellison's Spring. 

2. Cisco Running Fight. 

3. The Cottonwood Fight. 

4. Finley, the Little Dog Scout. 

5. The Stolen Boy. 

6. The Battle Creek Fight. 

1. In the Midst of Life. 

2. In Search of a Wife. 

Chapter X. The Texas Rangers. 


PERIOD 11—1873-1881. 


Chapter I. The Moving Frontier Line. 

Chapter II. Organization of the County. 

Chapter III. Some of the First Voters. 

Chapter IV. The County Town, Eastland City. 

Chapter V. The Advent of the Railroad. 

1. The Texas and Pacific. 

2. The Texas Central. 

PERIOD in— 1881-1904. 

growth and progress. 






Rising Star. 












Scran ton — Romney . 






. The Methodist Church 



The Baptist Church. 



Other Churches. 



School Directory. 



Left Over. 


In compiling tliis History of Eastland County the 
author has spared no pains in gathering the necessary 
material, and has striven to give realistic pictures in ac- 
cordance with the facts. In som;e instances the data 
are so scant that it has been necessary to supply the 
missing material as to environment by conjecture. This 
liberty, when taken, has always been indicated in the 

Thanks are due the following original settlers, who 
have contributed much valuable and interesting infor- 
mation : Judge J. H. Calhoun, W. C. McGough, T. E. 
Keith, Joe B. Smith, \Yilliam Allen, Silas C. Buck; and 
also to Eev. Wni. Monk, of Iredell, and Bethel Stravm, 
of Strawn. 

For statistics and other help, the author is in- 
debted to J. M. Williamson, County Clerk Ed 
Cox, County Tax Collector D. E. Jones, and 
Eev. S. J. A^aughan; to five newspapers in 
the county: The Eising Star X-Eay, Albert Tyson, 
editor; The Cisco Apart, W. L. .Wilson; The Eising 
Star Eecord, Smith & Baj'nes; The Carbon Herald, W. 
T. Curtis, and to the Eastland Chronicle, Frost & Chas- 

For material used in local sketches, names, etc., 
has been furnished by the following : 

Eastland City— Mayor Ed Hill, C. IT. Connellee, J. 
B. Ammerman, Capt. Kimble and Judge Hammons. 


Cisco — Dr. Vance, Eev. L Lamb, E. G. Luse and Eev. 
R. B. Vaughan, \V. D. Chandler and to J. J. 
Butts for loan of valuable books. Eising Star — ■ 
Prof. G-eo. C. Barnes, Jamies Irby, Neal Tur- 
ner and Eev. J. H. Chambliss. Eanger — Dr. 
C. E. Frost. Scranton — Eev. Geo. W. Parks. Gorman 
— T. L. Gates. Carbon— J. li. Cox. To Mr. L. S. 
Thorne, of the Texas and Pacific, and Mr. W. F. McMil- 
lan, of the Texas Central Railways, thanks are due for 

For hospitality extended, kind and encouraging 
words, the author extends her sincerest gratitude. 

If there be any names, communities or organizations 
left out that should have been in this history, it is be- 
cause the peisonal, written and newspaper requests for 
information failed to elicit the material needed. 

If this little volume affords as much pleasure in the 
reading as it did in the preparation it will have served a 
double purpose. 


Cisco, Texas, Feb. 29, 1904. 



Eastland County, Texas 

PERIOD 1-18^8-1873 

The New County. 

In 1858, before a white man had ventured to ex- 
pose himself and family to the dangers of what was 
then an Indian infested frontier, Eastland County was 
created by an act of the Seventh Legislature of Texas. 
By the same act Callahan, Stephens, Concho, Wichita, 
Coleman, Dawson, Shackelford, MicMullin, Frio, Za- 
valla, Edwards, Haskell, Knox, Hardeman, Dimmit, 
Baylor, Eunnels, Jones, Wilbarger, La Salle, Duval, 
Taylor, and Encinal Counties came into existence. The 
bill was approved Feb. 1, 1858. * 

Eastland County is ideally located, containing with- 
in its limits the divide between the Leon River and Palo 
Pinto Creek, and the eastern extremity of the backbone 
of the Colorado and Brazos Rivers. The depression be- 
tween these two divides is cut into by Colony Creek, a 
tributary of the Leon River. 

•The County was namei for Captain William Eastland, 
who died a. prisoner in Mexico. He is thought to have been 
one of the Muir prisoners, though Bean, in his memoirs in 
Yoakum's History of Texas, does not give his name. 


The northern slope of the eastern divide is drained 
by the two forks of Palo Pinto Creek, while the rest of 
the County is watered by the Leon, which rises just be- 
yond the County's western limit, and makes its exit 
about three miles southwest of Desdemona. 

The eastern divide is characterized by high hills of 
numerous shapes, which lie, in the main, east and west. 
It is gashed with ragged ravines, and abounds in deep 
canyons, in confused and tilted rocks, producing a 
varied and picturesque scenery. 

This broken ridge of high land bends northward 
above the first impressions of Colony Creek, and dips 
again southward around Cisco, the tongues of the Brazos 
licking into the northern slope of the backbone, playing 
hide and seek with the foragers of the Leon and Colo- 
rado on the south. As the great skeleton begins tc 
spread itself westward, it leaves large canyons and 

Trees of many kinds grow in great profusion — cedar 
and liveoak on the hills; postoak and blackjack on the 
sandy uplands; pecan and walnut, elm and hackberry, 
Cottonwood and willow along the streams, and in the 
glades mesquite abounds, and in niiany sandy loca- 
tions the shinery.* 

When the County was created its soil lay bare, void 
of fence or shack in its rugged nakedness. Under its 
huge boulders the wild cat found a safe home; its nu- 
merous caves afforded the wolves a hiding place; the 

•Some call a thick young growth of oak, shinery; others 
affirm It is a, peculiar, stunted growth of oak. The latter 
opinion is, perhaps, correct. 


bear, the panther, and the cougar roamed wild and free 
over its mountains, while the Indian, in his savage wild- 
ness, did not need to seek even the protection of a friend- 
ly canyon, so free was Eastland County from the tread 
of the ^N'hite man. 

The First Settlees. 

The creation of these new Counties caused a stir 
throughout the contiguous frontier, and several settle- 
ments were made even in the first year. 

The first man who came to the County was a Mexican, 
Frank Sanches. He had worked for Thomas Donahoo, 
of Parker County, but came here with his own stock 
and located between the Jim Neal Creek and its junc- 
tion with the Leon. 

In 1855 or '56 John Flannagan emigrated from Ken- 
tucky to Texas, and settled on Kickapoo Creek, in Par- 
jcer Count)'. When tlie new counties were laid off, the 
impulse to "grow up with the country" again possessed 
him, and, moving over into Eastland with his family, 
he built a home on Colony Creek, about eleven miles 
from' the center of the County. He was the first white 
man who moved into the County. One can but wonder if 
he looked down the years, and, passing by the choice loca- 
tions of the Palo Pinto Creek section, sought the cen- 
ter of the County for financial reasons. Mir. Flanna- 
gan had a wife and four children, Golston, Wesley, 
Julia Ann and "Bud." 


It is curious that a man, forgetting things he once 
loTed, and moved by the spirit of unrest, will sever ties 
of long standing and expose himself and his family to 
untried dangers This strange influence burned in the 
heart of W. H. Mansker as he sowed and reaped on his 
farm in Arkansas, and was fanned to flames by news 
of the Texas lands. With his family he pushed across 
the unsettled wastes of Eastern and Middle Texas, and 
stopped awhile in Parker County, but hearing of the 
Leon country he moved on and camped on a lake in 
the southern part of Eastland County. Later he built 
a home there, and the lake still bears his name. 

The next to cross the boundary line were James El- 
lison from Georgia ; J. M. Ellison from somewhere in 
Texas; T>r. Richardson from Arkansa,s, with their fam- 
ilies, and the Gilberts, four or five young men from 
Alabama. All these took up or bought surveys around 
Mansker Lake; Ellison to the south, at Ellison's Springs, 
where he still lives ; the Gilberts, Jim, Jasper and Tom, 
at Jewell, and Sing and Sam, brothers and cousins to 
the other Gilberts, three and one-half miles below Jew- 
ell, on Sabano Creek. This ranch is now known as the 
Morgan place. 

Following these was C. C. Blair, who came from 
Georgia to Alabania, stopped awhile in Collin and 
Parker Counties, and finally settled six or seven miles 
northeast of Mansker Lake. A little later this settle- 
ment became known as Blair's Fort. 

;W. C. MeGoua;h came from Georgia and camped 
at Blair's Fort. His first son, bom at the Fort An?. 17, 
1861, was the first white child bom in the County. 


In the northeastern part of the County like settle- 
ments were being made. Wm. Allen came from Palo 
Pinto County in 1858 and located a ranch on Push 
Creek (wliich he still owns), some twelve or fifteen 
miles east of the Flannagan Ranch. J. M. Stewart was 
his nearest neighbor, one-half mile away. Two or three 
other families settled in the sanie neighborhood. 

In the same part of the County was the Edwards 
Kanch, and just across the line, from three to six miles 
was the Clayton Ranch, on Bear Creek. Bethel Strawn 
settled where the town which now bears his name is lo- 
cnted three miles out of Eastland County. 

In Palo Pinto County, at the foot of the hills, about 
five miles east of Strawn, Peter Davidson lived. PTf 
moved into Eastland in 1865, and made his home five 
miles south of Allen's Ranch. All old settlers know 
the location of these two ranches. 

On North Palo Pinto Creek, in Stephens County, 
thirteen miles northwest of Flannagan's, Bruce Mc- 
Kean lived. 

The frontier line in Eastland County at this time, 
(1860), formed an obtuse angle, Flannagan's Ranch 
being the apex. 

Indian Tribes. 

In 1858 the Counties of Denton, Parker, Palo Pinto, 
Eastland, Brown, Lampasas, Burnet, Gillespie, Kendall, 
Bexar and San Patricio marked the frontier line in 


1'exas which, for twent}' years, made little advance. The 
Comanche Indians and their allies, the Kiowas, held 
undisputed sway over the remaining two-thirds of the 
State, with here and there a lone settlement of some 
venturesome pioneer. Between this frontier line and the 
Indians rode the dauntless and intrepid Texas Eanger, 
laboring day and night for the defense of the white cit- 

In 1865 the United States Government, having de- 
cided to pursue the policy of placing the Indians on res- 
ervations, established the Comanches — "the Arabs of the 
New World, whose hand was against every man, and 
every man's hand against them" — on a reservation on 
the Clear Fork of tlie Brazos River, about five miles 
from where Fort Griffin was located later. Forty miles 
below this reservation, and ten miles southeast of where 
Graham City now stands, and about the same distance 
below the junction of' the Clear Fork with the parent 
stream, was a second reservation, called the "Tonk Ees- 
ervation," containing, besides the Tonkaways, rem- 
nants of the Caddo and other tribes. The two reser- 
vations were connected, the former with Camp Cooper, 
and the latter with Fort Belknap. 

The Comanches and Kiowas were always political 
allies and hated enemiies of the "Tonks" and Caddos. 
When this is remembered, tog-ether with the fact that 
the Tonkaways were mild, and in the main, friendly, 
it is not surprising that reinforcemients were frequent- 
ly drawn from this reservation for raids against 
the treacherous, thieving, murderous Com'anches. 


Fi\o hundred of the latter were fed at the 
upper reservation by the Government, and given horses 
and cattle, but it is estimated that tvi^o thousand were 
roaming the Western prairies as wild and untamed as 
the eagle in the clef ted rock of the highest peak. 

The Comanches chafed under restraint and longed 
for the freedom of the plains— perhaps for the freedom 
of the scalping knife. In 1856 a few daring ones stole 
slyly out and made raids on the white settlements. In the 
early spring of 1857 the raids were renewed with sud- 
den vigor, and were continued throughout the year. 

An expedition, commanded by Colonel Eip Ford, 
was '='pnt out by the State in April, 1858, against a band 
of hostile Indians located on the Canadian River. One 
hundred friendly Indians from the lower reservation, 
under the Tonkaway chief, Placido, joined the expedition, 
which was under the command of Captain L. S. Eoss. The 
Indian scouts having located the enemy, the Comanches 
were attacked at daybreak May 12, 1858, the allies 
leading in the charge. 

The Comanche chief, Prohebits Quasho, called "Iron 
Jacket," from the scaled coat of mail he wore, believing, 
it is said, that his arm'or bore a charm, rode in front, 
inciting his followers to deeds of bravery by his own 
cool daring. The bullets fell around him; i still he 
rode unhurt. At last an Anadarko chieftain among the 
allies, sent a well-directed rifle bullet which pierced the 
charmed armor, and Iron Jacket fell to rise no more. 
The Comanches fled in wild confusion, and several pris- 
oners were captured, among them, No-po, the small son 


of Prohebits Quasho. This was known as the battle of 
Antelope Hills. 

Some months later, October 1, 1858, the same force 
again surprised the Comanehes at their homes just at 
sunrise. Lieutenant Van Camp and several soldiers 
were killed. The loss of the Indians was heavy. In 
this battle a Caddo ally recaptured s little white girl 
whose identity has not been determined. 

N'otwithstanding the fact that the Indians had 
agreed that anyone found off the reservations would be 
shot, the year 1858 had barely ended when they were 
in Erath County stealing horses. From the years 1855- 
1859 — the time when the government was attempting 
to herd the Indians, feed them,, and keep peace with 
them — there was continued and serious trouble between 
them and the white citizens, for the former would steal 
horses and scalp the whites nearly every light of the 
moon, and the latter would seek to repel and puni=h the 

At last, however, matters reached a climax, and the 
Indians were remloved by the Federal Government across 
the Bed Eiver into the Territory, whej-e they have since 
remained. The Comanehes were not slow to see and act 
upon the existing fact that they had greater freedom, 
and depredations continued, becoming more frequent. 

It was the custom in these turbulent times for neigh- 
bors to work together in clearing land, plowing and 
planting, the womep mi childrcp being placed in th^ 
nearest house, 



■■ Charge, Boys, Chaege." 

Early in the year of 1860, (February 7th), close to 
tlie eastern boundary line of the County, Jim Stewart, 
with Mack Allen and Bethel Strawn, was clearing off 
underbrush about a quarter of a mile from his home. 
Xear by were Sam and William Allen and William Lew- 

In Mr. Stewart's little one-room cabin, with its 
lean-to, were his wife and Masses Emmaline and Mar- 
tha Allen, the latter being a sister of William^ Allen. 

While the two girls carded, Mrs. Stewart presided 
at the spinning wheel, all discussing, the meanwhile, 
the colors they would use in their new dresses. 

"il'ine is to be solid red," said Martha. 

"I'm going to make mine red and green," announced 
Miss Emmaline. 

"Mine'll be the prettiest of all, then," followed Mrs. 
Stewart, "for Jim wants me to make it red and green 
and blue." 

"Listen!" suddenly cried Miss Martha Allen, who 
sat near the door. The wheel stopped instantly, for the 
girl's face was blanched with fear. 

"Indians !" gasped Mrs. Stewart. 

"Ye Gods ! Such a lot of 'ami !" added Martlia, as 
twenty Indians swung around the bend of the road out 


of the dense imdergrowth bordering the Palo Pinto 
Creek, and bore down upon the little cabin. 

Quickly shutting to and barring the door, Mts. Stew- 
art caught up her gun, and, placing the muzzle against 
a crack in the door jamb, said : 

"JSTow, girls, let's keep cool." 

"Yes, and our scalps, too," * grimly added Miss Em- 

The Indians began plundering the place of harness, 
saddles, pans, buckets — anything. I^ow they were on 
the gallery ! 

"G-irls, I'm going to shoot," whispered Mrs. Stew- 
art, with her finger on the trigger. "I'll kill that big 
fellow right now." 

"Don't," cautioned Miss Emjualine, afterwards Mrs. 
Bethel Strawn, who is still living. "Don't ! Wait until 
they try to get in !" This wise counsel prevailed. 

The Indians kept up a hideous yelling all the while, 
presumably to frighten the inmates of the cabin, but, 
instead, it proved their salvation, for the men over 
across the ravine, heard the terrible noise and, recog- 
nizing it at once, feared the worst, and rushed with 
breathless speed to the rescue. 

As the men came shouting together, and rushed wild- 
ly down the bank of the deep ravine back of the cabin, 
Mack Allen called in wildest frenzy : 

"Charge, boys ! Charge !" 

The Indians, cowards in the face of danger, and 
thinking, doubtless, from the noise the six men made, 

*Her exact words, 


that a whole com'jiany of Rangers was rushing upon 
them from out of the wood, mounted their ponies, and 
were gone as suddenl)' as they came. 

The men hurriedly followed. Upon arriving at the 
house of ilr. Woods, seven miles below, they found it 
deseited, and spurred their horses onward. Two miles 
further they came upon the dead bodies of Mts. Wood 
and 'Mts. Lemjey. Gently lifting and placing them in 
the limbs of the trees, far from the reach of the prowl- 
ing wolves, they again pressed on for fear a worse fate 
awaited the Misses Lemley, who, at the time, were at 
Mjrs. Wood's home. Although the white men were re- 
inforced as they pushed on, and made frantic efforts to 
overtake them, the Indians successfully eluded them and 

The two girls were kept over night, robbed of their 
clothing, and turned loose with only one garment each 
to protect them from, the night's chilling frost or the 
norther's keen blast. 

Think of it ! Before the hills and valleys and up- 
lands of this beautiful country had ever been trod by 
the white man's feet; when the hungry coyote howled 
his mournful lamentation through the dreary night; 
when the panther and the catamount lay perched upon 
the limbs of the forest waiting for prey; alone, despair- 
ingly, shuddering over their awful fate, shivering with 
cold, not knowing which way to turn, possessed with a 
horrible sickening fear that the Indians would return — 
the two girls hiding among the rocks, running from one 
covering to another, finally made their way back to the 


settlement and found themselves at the home of Tur- 
key Eoberts, five miles north of Stephenville. 

One of the girls has since died. The other married,, 
and lives in Palo Pinto County. * 

Ported Eanches aktd Incidents of the Times. 

During the years 1857'-1862 the Indians were un- 
usually active along the frontier. When one remem- 
bers the topography of the counties forming the bound- 
ary line of civilization, the numerous streams which cut 
their way through mountains, leap into canyons, and 
tumble out pell mell into the valleys, where they wind 
in sinuous, undulating way, is it to be wondered at 
that the red man of the forest yielded to the temptation 
of his environments and sought revenge for the appro- 
priation of his domain to the uses of the white man? 

Although the primal object of the Indians in mak- 
ing raids into the white settlements was to steal horses; 
yet, if there were the slightest pretext, they miurdered 
with all the zest of their ancestral inheritance. During 
these perilous years the pioneer settlers were forced to 
come together for mTitua,l protection. 

In the southeastern part of Eastland County eight 

•Messrs. William and Sam Allen and Bethel Strawn, 
who were in the chase after the Indians, are the authority 
for the above incident. Mr. Sam Allen lives at Van Horn, 
the other two gentlemen at Strawn. 


families were forted at C. C. Blair's Eanch. The houses 
were built and the tents stretched around an open square, 
and these were enclosed bj' a close picket fence eight or 
ten feet high. The families living at Blair's Fort were 
those of Ellison, Kujkendall,' the Gilberts, Mknsker, C. 
C. Blair, W. ('. JlcGough, and a little later, William 
Arthur. There were others who found refuge in the Fort 
from time to time. 

As the largest number of families were gathered here, 
and it was also a frequent stopping place for the Ran- 
gers on their journeys hither and thither, large supplies 
of bread-stuff and ammunition were kept on hand. * As 
the traveler went northward, however, he found Flan- 
nagan's Eanch practically unprotected, guarded only by 
an elderly man, "Bad Eeece," who was kept about the 
house. In the Allen neighborhood were three forted 
ranches — Allen's, Clayton's and Edwards'. Smaller 
ranchmen built their houses in groups of two, 
three or four. McCain in the edge of Stephens 
County, and Uncle Peter Davidson at the foot of the 
mountains in Palo Pinto County, both had their 
ranches well forted. 

On Gonzales Creek, a little further up the countij-, 
in Stephens County, lived the pioneer settler, Mr. John 
Reynolds, whose sons, George, William' D. and P. W., 
have large interests in Cisco. 

It was in 1860, shortly before Blair's Eanch was 
forted, that the Indians stole all the horses belonging to 
the Ranch. The men followed hard after them, and the 

*There was later a road openeJ between Stephenville 
and Fort Griffin, which passed through Blair's Fort. 


women were left to guard camps. A daughter of the 
Fort writes : "We children were kept in a little two by 
four house, and the women sat under the wagons, expect- 
ing every minute to see the Indians come. 

"By and by the Indians got so bad we all went to 
Stephenville and stayed six weeks. At that time there 
was one store, one drug store and a blacksmith shop in 
that town. 

"On our way back to the old Fort we had a narrow 
escape from the Indians. We had just passed Mr. Elli- 
son's, the only house between the two places, when his 
dog began to bark, and, as he stepped to the door, the 
Indians shot, one arrow striking in the ground at his 
feet. He had only to shut his door and get his gun. 
They left him, but, providentially, did not overtake us. 

"When we reached home we found three or four hogs 
killed and laid in a heap, and one old sow walking around 
with an arrow sticking in her back. Presently a cow came 
running home with seven arrows in her. Poor thing! 
We had to pen her before we could pull them out. That 
is one time we expected every minute to be attacked." 

Billy Cross and family, a wife and five children, lived 
at Mansker's Lake. It is presumed that it was these 
same Indians, above referred to, who stole sixty of Mr. 
]\Ianskex'"s horses, and were pursued by Mr. Mansker, 
bis son, Tom and Billy Cross. They overtook them on 
Flat Creek and had a furious fight. Cross being killed, 
and Wr. Mansker's and Tom's mounts shot from under 
them. The Indians escaped with the horses, not one 
of them ever being recovered. Mr. Ma,nsker and Tom 
made their way home separated and afoot. 


Shortly after this fight, M.T. Cross's family and a Mt. 
Dalton's at Blair's Ranch, moved back East. It was 
just about this time that the fort was built. 

One night Jlr. and Mrs. Blair sat around their 
0V.T1 hearthstone alone with their children. This was 
before the ranch was forted. A large and ferocious 
cougar, emboldened by hunger, came up to the 
yard fence and, catching a pig, made off with it. 
Both Mr. Blair and his wife ran impetuously after it, 
"sicking" the eager dogs on in their violent efforts to 
regain the shoat. The dogs outran them:, but by the 
excited barking they knew the cougar was "treed," and 
followed on to the creek. Not until the "nasty var- 
mint" * fell, with a bullet through him, down among the 
tingling, quivering dogs, did this father and mother 
think of aught else. 

"Lord a' mercy. Pap; the Indians!" screamed Mrs. 
Blair, and they ran, leaped and tore through 
the brush in their frantic efforts to reach their 
unprotected children. Mrs. Blair has always affirmed 
that the agonizJing fright of those few minutes frosted 

*Next morning the cougar was skinned, his fat rendered 
to grease hides and his carcass given to the chicltens, as 
such meat and clabber were all they had to live on. The 
cougar's hide was stretched to the martin-box pole, and the 
skillet of rendered fat set outside the door. Not a hog was 
to be seen all day, an attack like the one the night before 
always frightening them into the woods. But towards sun- 
set they came home. Mrs. Blair was alarmed at the vicious, 
ugly sounds she heard, and going to the door she found 
the hogs were acting like wild, tossing the skillet in their 
fury, rearing up to get to the cougar's hide, and "ughing" 
and "booing" in the most ferocious way. The children were 
brought in. The hide was taken to the field. 


her hair. ''To think a pig could make me forget my 
children was what hurt," she said. 

Daily contact inures one to dangers, yet quickejis 
one's instinct to watchfulness. This is strikingly true 
of the frontiersman. At this Blair's Fort a man would 
pick up his gun and go out .hunting alone, when it was 
well understood that when the light of the mioon should 
corme the Indians would be raiding the white settle- 

On a hazy October afternoon, when one of the men 
had just come in with a deer on his shoulder, Jim Mc- 
Gough went to the spring, three hundred yards away, 
to water his horse. While there he was attacked by the 
Indians, and attempted to outrun them to the gates of 
the Fort. In this short, but impetuous. face, the fright- 
ened animal pitched him into the brush. The Indians, 
endeavoring to head him off, chased up the other side 
of the dense thicket, but seeing the gates closed, they 
disappeared, when Mr. McGough came running up to 
the Fort with his face covered with blood. 

Cattle and hogs were the comimercial possibilities 
of the County, on which the settlers relied for sustenance 
and for money. 

Blair's Fort stood five years, 1860-1865. 

The Fikst Wedding. 

"Ma, guess what I found." Mr. Blair stood in the 

"Found?" echoed Mrs. Blair, rising up from the 
hearth, where she was putting coals on the lid of the 


skillet into which she had just put the "corn dodgers" 
to bake. "Found? A cougar or panther, like as not." 
Then noting the look of satisfaction on his face, she 
cried out, "Not a bee tree, Pa ?" 

"Yes, a bee tree, and chuck full of honey, too. Where's 
a tub ?" 

Mrs. Blair smiled and looked at Sarah Jane, who 
clapped her hands, while all the little Blairs Jumped 
up and down in glee. 

When one remlembers that on this far Western fron- 
tier, one hundred miles from the nearest mill, only ne- 
cessities were provided — ^bread, coffee, beans, etc.; no 
sugar, no fruit — one can readily comprehend the glee of 
the small children at thought of a "tubful of honey," 
but may wonder at Sarah Jane crying, "Honey cakes, 
Ma! Honey cakes! Oh, think of it!" A bee tree 
wasn't found every day, and they had no cakes any other 
time. But a more subtle reason, still, existed and 
caused Sarah Jane's delight. 

Only the night before the daughter had said, "But 
think. Ma, a wedding without cakes ! And everybody'll 
be here." 

"But, honey, you have a pretty white * nainsook dress 
trimmed up in emhroidery, and made low neck and 
short sleeves. And another thing you have — I wasn't 
goin' to tell you 'til he was through with 'em — is such 
a pretty pair of shoes as Bill McGough is makin' you, 
the vamp all notched; and he's goin' to shine 'em up. 
and they'll look like real store-bought shoes." Now, that 

*Mr. Blair paid fifteen bushels of wheat, at 75 cents a 
bushel for the wedding dress. 


the cakes were assured, Sarah Jane's cup of happiness 
was running over. 

Preparations for the great event to take place next 
Tliursday assumed a new dignity which was personified 
in beautiful Sarah Jane, for there was not a boy on the 
Sabanno, or in the Fort, but envied handsome Coon 
Keith. All the petty jealousies within those picket walls 
were for the time forgotten and everybody lent a hand 
in the preparations. Venison and turkey were brought 
in in the greatest plenty, and the men barbecued the 
lat mavericks. 

Coon Keith and Jim McGcOugh, on good mounts, 
went to Com&nche town for the license, and on tire day 
of the wedding Joe Smith was delegated to go for the 
preacher, Eeverend Coker, who came alone from Co- 
manche to Albert Sowles' on the Sabanno, where he was 
met by Mr. Smith. After a ride of a couple of miles 
the two men camie upon a fresh Indian trail, and they 
wondered if there would be any interference in the wed- 
ding arrangements. They halted presently where the 
Indians had had breakfast. There was the cow freshly 
slaughtered, part of her meat lying still in the skin, 
and the fire warm and glowing. 

The men rode cautiously and slowly on. It was 
past the noon hour, and they had ten m'dlea yet to go. 
The wedding was to take place at four o'clock, and 
Smith was "best raian." 

At last the trail made a sharp turn to the west, and 
the men rightly surmised that the Indians were going 
home on the Western route, and again spurred their 
horses onward, and were soon at the Fort. 


At last the hour arrived. The long tables glistened 
when the sun fell on them through the thick-leaved 
branches of the sturdy oaks. The minister took his 
stand, and the couple to be married walked out into the 

Coon Keith, the man, was eighteen years old. He 
had black hair and eyes, cheeks like June apples, carried 
himself like the young Apollo he was, and was dressed 
in blue pants and black sack coat, with two big * six- 
shooters buckled around him. The girl holding to his 
arm so timidly, half frightened by the impetuosity of 
the man's eager love, looked like a unique lily. A 
faultless skin, without a shade of color, large, deep blue 
eyes, her throat and shoulders and arms rivaling her 
embroidered nainsook dress in whiteness, and crown- 
ing this, hei blood-tinged, yellow-brown hair combed 
loosely back and tied with white ribbon, made a picture 
that still lives vividly in the minds of those who saw her. 

The menu of this first wedding was : 

Beef, a la barbecue. 

Turkey, with dressing and sliced eggs. 

Venison, bread, butter, coffee, milk. 

Honey cakes. 

After the wedding, Reverend Coker wanted to preach. 
This, they would not allow on such a festive occasion, 
but gave themselves up to the pleasures of "Weavely 
Wheat" and kindred games until the yard was beaten 
into powder, and the cock was crowing for day. 

♦Tom Keith, a cousin, had intimated that he meaijt to 
enter objections when the time came, 


Miss L/izzie Keith, now Mrs. Presley of Curtis, maid 
of honor, and Joe Smith, best man, both wore white. 

Mr. Eeith has accum'ulated much wealth, and lives 
with his still beautiful wife in Erath County, not many 
miles from Desdemona. 



An Indian Race. 

In Steve Brandon's home everything was going 
wrong. His wife had been ill for two days. The four 
or five grown boys could turn "flapjacks" and make 
"corn dodgers," but their big hands were clumsy when 
they tried to "pat up" Ma's pillow, or give her a dose 
of medicine. 

"I'm goin' for Mts. Kohen," Mr. Brandon announced 
after dinner. "She's over at Clayton's. Keep a sharp 
lookout for the red skins, boys." 

"You do the same, Steve," feebly called out his wife, 
as he buckled on his six-shooter and left the house. 

The sun shone from a clear sky on that memorable 
afternoon, December 15, 1860. Brandon was a brave 
man, but his heart was heavy with forebodings as he 
started on that fateful journey of five or six miles. 
As he went deeper into the wood, however, thinking 
of his sick wife and his own imminent danger (as it 
was the light of the moon) he realized, perhaps 
unconsciously, that nature is capable of restoring one's 
peace of mind and calming one's fears. 

Mts, Kohen readily consented to go, and for lack 


of any better way, Mr. Brandon took her tip behind him 
on his trusty * bhick stewl and started off in a smart 
pace for home. 

When th'ey had covered but half the distance they 
were most abruptly apprised of immediate danger. The 
air was cut by the whizz of an arrow, which lodged in 
a tree directly in front of them. The noble animal knew 
as well as the riders that an Indian was behind them, 
and plunged wildly down the homeward path in ;i race 
for life. 

The hiss and sight of the arrow lodged in the tree 
instantly restored to Brandon's mind the gloom that 
. had rested upon his soul as he entered the woods from 
home. Glancing backward, he was tilled with unfeigned 
horror, for not one Indian, but twenty, swune into 
view, and came after them yelling like demons, the ar- 
rows playing about them thick and fast. 

Brandon, leaning forward, loosened the rein and 
urged the horse onward. The woman's grip about him 

"My G-od !" he thought, "she is shielding me !" And 
as his gloom had been lifted by the sweet breath of na- 
ture in these woods a couple of hours before, so now, the 
responsibility for the life of this woman, on her errand 
of miercy for one he loved, thrilled him, angered him, 
lifted the burden from his soul, and in his restored man- 
hood he thundered : 

"Halt ! wheel !" The horse obeyed his master. The 

*Colpr of horse not Known, 


man * fired thrice in quick succession at the bewildered 
Indians as they tumbled off their ponies into the grass. 

"Go, * General, go !" shouted Brandon, and again 
the mad dash forward for life ! 

The Indians instantly recovered their ponies. On 
they came; on, on, like a horde of devils, while their in- 
fernal yells and hissing arrows environed their victims 
as with a funereal pall. The white man urged his horse 
forward. The air was thick with hideous sounds. He 
gasped for a good breath of God's air. The Indians 
gained on him ! The gloom was again settling upon 
1)13 iiiiiil, whnn Mrs. Kohen cried out: 

"I am shot, Steve !" 

Again was he angered, angered at the fiends seeking 

"Hold fast !" he cried, as he, wheeled and fired. The 
Indians repeated their former movement with greater 
agility, and the race was on again. 

Not a moan escaped the lips of the woman as she 
pleaded : 

"Steve, my back is full of arrows; I am killed already. 
Think of your sick wife, and drop m€ and save your- 

This appeal cleared the atmosphere for once and for 
all. How good was sweet nature's breath! With every 
barrel loaded, Brandon wheeled, and with a shout of 

*There is a differencp of opinion about the kind of gun 
used. Messrs. McGough, Snm and William Allen. Smith and 
Strawn and Mrs. Parm of Cisco, a sister-in-law of Mrs, Ko- 
hen, are authority for th* Incident, 

t'Presumed name. 


defiance that startled tine woman into tightening her 
hold, he sent six bullets on errands of fate. Plope 
surged mightily in his bosom, as he shouted: 

"Forward, Greneral!" The gallant steed seemed to 
have caught his master's spirit, as, unfalteringly, he 
once more threw himself into the race with death. 
Brandon's cries now came as shouts of victory. He 
gained on the Indians, and, coming in hearing of his 
home, he raised his voice and called loudly. 

One of the big boys, out at the barn feeding tlie 
stock, for it must be done before night, heard the clat- 
tering of hoofs, listened, heard the yelling Indians, then 
his father's call. He rushed into the house. 

"Jim, you stay with Ma. Come Steve, you and Tom. 
The Indians are after Pa." They ran out with their 
guns, making a great hullabaloo, whereupon the Indians 
fled, and the race was won! 

Mr. Brandon was hit six times, and they pulled seven 
arrows from poor Mrs. K'ohen's back. Strange as it 
may seem, she recovered rapidly. Some time after this 
she became the wife of Mt. Clayton, * and now lives 
in El Paso, Texas. 

A Turkey Hunt. 

That same night two men, Joe Smith and "Bad 
Eeese," working on the Flannagan Eanch, about twelve 
miles southwest of the Brandon Eanch, went out to hunt 
wild turkeys, thinking there was little danger, as no 
Indians had been seen for some time. 

*Mrs. Clayton died Feb. 24, 1904, at Toyah. 


Suddenly, when they were down near the edge of 
the bank of Colony Creek, they heard a stealthy tramp 
on the dead leaves. 

"What's that?" whispered Eeese. 

"Sh'. It's Indians, sure's you're born," said Smith, 
and, catching the other man's hand, that they might 
stay together, they took tv/o steps out from off the dead 
leaves on to the soft grass bordering the stream, and 
cunningly striding on up the creek, artfully dodged the 
red skins. 

\¥hen they reached the ranch, and next miorning told 
the other men there, John Flannagan, his son, Golston, 
(riols), and Eal Smith, they were laughed at for their 

''It was Indians, I tell you, sure's you live," affirmed 
Smith. "I heard their steps. They were all about us. 
I believe they were in six feet of us. They'd 'skyed' us, 
you know, before we got too low down, and couldn't 
see us anymore. Oh, you can laugh, but it was Indians." 

If the warning had only been heeded the two yoimg 
men — Joe Smith and Gols Flannagan — would not have 
been started out alone that morning to Blair's Fort, and 
the lone grave under the tree still bears testimony to the 
grim truth that "it was sure Indians." 

The following account of the attack of these same 
twenty Indians who had chased the self-reliant Brandon, 
who had all but captured Smith and Eeese the same 
night, and now finish up their gruesome work, is told 
by Joe Smith, who lives at Victor, Erath County, seven 
miles from Desdem'ona, 


The Lost Areow Head. 

"On the 16th day of December, 1860, Gols Flan- 
nagan and myself started in an ox wagon to Blair's 
Fort, fifteen miles away, for some bread stuff. iWe had 

JOE SMtTH, Victor, Texas. 

only gone a mile when we were waylaid by Indians, who 
opened fire on us at close range from a little ravine by 
the side of the road, which we were about to cross. 

"Fifteen or twenty red skins facing a fellow on a 
turn in the road is enough to make the cold chills run 
down any man's back — Gols was only nineteien and I 
was twenty — ^but we didn't have time for more than 


that, for the bullets and arrows sung a funeral dirge 
about us. 

" 'I'm shot!' I -exclaimied, falling backward in the 
covered wagon, and pulling a stinging arrov.^ out of my 
knee. Grols turned and looked at me in a dazed manner, 
not seeming to understand. There was a red spot on 
his shirt front, and I knew be was hit, too. 

"The young oxen, at sight of the Indians, wheeled 
around and ran as if wild, followed by the howling 
fiends. Presently the animals left the road and took 


to the open, miaking for a timbered spot. They ran 
some two hundred yards, when the wheels hit a tree, 
and they broke loose from the wagon. 

"I was nimble as a cat in those days, and the Indians 
having fallen some little distance behind, I leaped from 
the wagon and ran off in the timber. There I looked 
and waited for Gols, thinking perhaps he was hiding in 
a little hollow below me. My knee got to hurting me 
so bad I decided to make miy way to the ranch. Gols 
had not come in. 'Bad' Eeese went at once to look for 


him, and found him dead and scalped. Eeese and Eal 
Smith went out and brought him in on a horse. Early 
the next morning the men went to McCain's Ranch for 
help, and Mr. Highsaw and Lyman McCain came back 
with them and buried Gols, and wc all m.oved up to 
their forted ranch the next day. By April I was able 
to get around on crutches- From about the middle of 
Januar}' I was at my father's house in Parker County, 
and was disabled for six months. 

"One day in 1886 somiething pricked m« on the 
under side of my knee. On examination, I found a 
sharp black point sticking through the skin, and knew 
at once that twenty-five years ago I had been shot with 
a double-headed arrow, and had only pulled one head 
out. Three wet'ks later, on February 21, 1886, after 
having carried it in my knee for twenty-five years, two 
months and five days, the arrow head came out." 

In War Times. 

In 1861 news did not travel fast in Eastland County, 
for it lay on the very border land of civilization, wiili 
its three or four scattered settlements. 

Recruiting agents went where some degree of suc?ess 
might attend their patriotic efforts, and it was not anitl 
1864 that men in this section were called upon to lear 

It was not from a desire on the part of the Gov- 


ernment to make every man feel the burden of war tliai 
the frontiersman was impressed, or even that he might 
take part in the civil strife caused by the black man, 
but he was called upon to repel systematically the inva- 
sions of the red man. 

Prior to 1868, Eastland, Shackelford and Calla- 
han Counties were under the jurisdiction of Comanche 
County. After this date Eastland was attached to Palo 

At every meeting of the Legislature laws were passed 
for the procection of the frontier. They were adhered 
to as closfeiy as the conditions and times would permit, 
and that v/as all the law required. About the 1st of 
February, 18C4, Eastland was organized jinder the 
Conscript ijaw for military purposes . 

* Forty men were required to form a company, and 
at that time it took every man between the ages 
of eighteen and forty-five in the Counties of Eastland, 
Shackelfoid and Callahan to muster the required num- 

Think of the rich fields of corn and cotton and grain 
that thrive in our County to-day; of the handsome and 
substantial houses that dot its surface; of the many 
beautiful churches, school houses, public buildings, and 
of the whirring machinery; of the eighteen to twenty 
towns with their three hundred to three thousand in- 

•■Chapter 36, Section 3, General laws of the Timth Legis- 
lature reads: "That the commissioned officers of each com- 
pany of fifty men or more shall consist of a Captain and 
two Lieutenants; if less than fifty men, two Lieutenants," 
etc. However, the spirit of the law was met in these fron- 
tier counties. 


liabitants; then, in imagination, wipe out all these farms 
and housL's and towns; fill the primeval forests and 
prairies, without a \cstige of a shack of any kind, with 
the snarlmg, hungry animals, and the fiendish, treacher- 
ous Indians, and you have a picture of the territory 
rra versed by those early guardians of our country. Flan- 
nagan's Banch, McGough Springs and Jewell marked 
the wt.stem limit of the white man's tread in Eastland 
in 1864. 

TIk' following roster was furnished by T. E. Keith, 
who joined the Company as soon a§ he was eighteen 
years old: 

Sing Gilbert, First Lieutenant;. 

J. B. il'cGough, Second Lieutenant. 

J. L. Head, Sergeant. 

H. York, Corporal. 

Privates : W. X. Arthur, Thomas Mansker, James 
Stubblefield, J. B. Smith, John Temples, James Tem- 
ples, John Ward, Frank Caddenhead, Tom Caddenhead, 
*Ike Ward, C. C. Blair, J. M. Ellison, S. C. Shirley, W. 
C. McGough, Joe Henshaw, Gabriel Keith, B. TVT. Keith, 
G. B. Ely, Sara Gilbert, Tom Gilbert, James Gilbert. 
Jasper Gilbert, Taylor Gilbert, Joseph Dudley, William 
Fisher, J. J. Keith, J. M". York. 

As three of these men lived in Comanche County — 
Joseph Dudley, William Fisher and S. C. Shirley — there 
were, really, only twenty-eight mien in E^astland. A 

*It was not known until after the war closed that four or 
five of these men were deserters from the army. Ike Ward 
was arrested during the war, taken to Arkansas, court- 
martialed and shot as a deserter. 


few months after the organization of this company, how- 
ever, all the available citizens of Callahan and Shack- 
elford Counties were added to it, making the required 
forty, and First Lieutenant Gilbert was made Captain, 
J. B. McGough, First Lieutenant, and N. H. Kuyken- 
dall, Second Lieutenant. 

The Company was divided into three squads, and 
each man was required to serve ten days out of thirty. 
The starting place was Nash's Spring, half way between 
McGough Springs and Jewell, and the incoming scout 
was always met by the outgoing squad, thus keeping a 
lookout committee continuously on duty. 

Several days after Le.e's surrender a detachment 
of Gilbert's Comtpany arrived at Blair's Fort. There 
they received the sad news from Lewis Keith, who had 
just returned from Louisiana, and the Company dis- 

When the danger of being "pressed" into the Con- 
federate Army had passed, it is said that at least one- 
third of the meji in Eastland County moved back across 
the Brazos River. That this was a fact, the census of 
1870 proves, as the entire population numbered only 
eighty-eight. The only wonder is that any remained, 
as there was no Government protection at all until the 
next Legislature met. 

All honor to the brave men and women who still 
possessed their homes and held the line of civilization 
in Eastland ! All honor to the gray hairs of those who 
fought for her in those perilous times, and who still live 
among us ! Eternal honors be to the glorious manhood 
and womanhood that creates pioneers ! 



I — Ellison's Spring Fiaht. 

On the 8th of August, 1864, J. L. Head, Corporal, 
led out eight men for a ten days' scout, camping the 
first night at McGough Springs. On the morning of 
the 9th the men went west till they struck the Leon, 
near where the Texas Central Railway now crosses it. 
There they discovered a large Indian trail leading 
southeast, the signs indicating there were were at least 
thirty-five or forty Indians, some riding, some walking. 
The men, knowing they were down to steal horses, 
pushed hard on after themj. The trail crossed Kash's 
Creek about three miles east of Carbon, where the In- 
dians killed a beef for breakfast, then continued south 
until they reached the present location of the W. W. 
Boone place, one and one-half miles north of Jewell. It 
was then the Gilbert ranch. 

Captain T. E. Keith, of Curtis, furnished the fol- 
lowing description of the battle : 

"There we overhauled them, seven of us — Harris 
York's horse having given out, he had pulled for the 
ranch. We fought them at long range for awhile, un- 
til we saw we had no sort of showing, when our Com- 
mander ordered a retreat to the Gilbert Ranch for 
reinforcements. At the two ranches we got five more 
men, making our number twelve, with Sing Gilbert, 
our Captain, in command. 

"We returned to where we left the Indians, took 
up the trail, followed it east about twelve miles, where, 


three hundred 5'ards south of Ellison's Spring, in Un- 
cle Billy Jones' field, we discovered them. Our Cap- 
tain ordered a charge and led it up to within thirty 
or forty feet of their line. 

"Think of it ! Twelve men, armed with muzzle-load- 
ing riiles and shotguns and pistols, charging right up 
to a line of forty Indians, and most of them on foot and 
coming to meet us ! 

"Captain Gilbert ordered a halt. We fired on them, 
but they kept coming. Our Captain ordered us to fall 
back. We turned right in their faces, and on that turn 
is where they got in their deadly work. 

■"The Indians wore shields that would turn our bul- 
lets, and were armed with bows and arrows, which, at 
sliort range, were more accurate and deadly than rifles 
and six-shooters. 

"On that turn * our Captain was shot inthe neck with 
an arrow, and died in less than two hours. Button 
Keith's horse fell, and they killed him right there. Jim 
Ellison received a deep arrow wound in the hip, which 
disabled him for life. Tom Caddenhead was shot through 
the thigh just below the hip joint and pinned to the 
saddle, and Torti Gilbert was shot twice through the 
arms. Two mien killed and three disabled in less time 
than it takes to make the statemient. Five out of twelve 
knocked out and not a load left in a gun or pistol ! 

"Well, there was nothing left for us fo do except to 
outrun them to Ellison's house, which we did in grand 

*Mr. Keith was unmounted in this direful retreat and 
separated from his party a few awful minutes, hut recov- 
ered his horse and escaped unhurt. 


shape, the India.ns following us to within eighty yards 
of the house. 

■■Runners wen- then sent to the Grabe Keith Ranch, 
fifteen miles a\\ay, to the Gilbert Ranch, twelve miles, 
and to ALansker"s, eight miles, to let them know of the 
trouble. About nine o'clock that night my father, J. 
J. Keith, started to Stephenville to have graves pre- 
pared for the two dead men — that being the nearest 
graveyard. The distance was thirty-five miles, and not 
a settler at that time between the two places. 

'■He arrived at Stephenville at daybreak, and heard 
bells, and horses running on the hill east of town. Be- 
lieving that Indians were stealing the horses, he alarmed 
the town. Joel Dodson and another man, however, had 
heard the belk and running horses, and, taking their 
guns, had gone to investigate. While crossing 
the Bosque they heard a noise in the bed of 
the creek above them. Listening and sky-lighting they 
decided there were Indians near and iired, whereupon 
the savages ran off, leaving five bloody pallets and two 
* guns they had picked up on the battle ground the day 
before at Ellison's Spring, proving that they were the 
same Indians and at least five of them were wounded. 

"On the eleventh of August, Captain Gilbert and But- 
ton Keith were consigned to their last resting places at 
Stephenville, and the curtain was dropped on the blood- 
iest battle with Indians ever fought in Eastland.'' 

*One of the guns recovered belongecl to Mr. Keith, who 
dropped it when he was unmounted. 


List of scouts in Ellison Springs fight : 

Gilbert, Captain, killed. 

J. L. Head, corporal. 

T. E. Keith, Curtis, substitute for J. J. Keith. 

riarris York, Alamogordo. 

Ijexoy Keith, killed. 

.T. M. Ellison, Gorman. 

W. C. McGough, Eastland. 

Jim Gilbert, Millsap. 

Tom Gilbert, dead. 

Sam Gilbert, dead. 

Jasper Gilbert, dead. 

Jim Temples, Menardville. 

Tom Caddenhead. 

II — Cisco Eunning Fight. 

The date of this very interesting event could not 
be learned, but Mr . McGough writes ; 

"I led the Scout and trailed the .Indians with two 
dogs, named Colonel and Hats. * 

The fight began on the hill west of the Miethodist 
church and was intensely exciting as the little band, 
chasing the Indians northwest, fired as they ran, the In- 
dians as vigorously returning the attack. Mr. McGough 
says: "There were many shots fired — the Indians having 
guns. Albert Henning was wounded, and I was for- 
tunate enough to hit the Indian who shot him." 

It was believed at the timie that Mr. McGough 

*Colonel was a dog with a pedigree. Hats wa.s a mon- 


killed this Indian, but the timber growth being dense, 
the Scout deemed it best not to follow farther, especially 
as the Indians had fled, leaving the large bunch of 
horses they had stolen and were driving to the reser- 

A few years later, a Mr. Sublett, formerly of Coman- 
che, discovered the grave * of an Indian near Cisco, and 
from the headdress he was supposed to have been a 
chief. As McG-ough fired six shots at the chief 
who had wounded Henning, the discovery gave 
weight to his opinion that he had wounded the Indian 
unto death. 

There were thirteen men who took part in this 
memorable fight — three of whom Mr. McGough cannot 
recall : 

vW. C. McGough, C. Brashears, L. B. Brittain, T. 
A. Bearden, H. Edwards, John Hill, Albert Henning, 
John Beall, George Keith, Jerome Mc>Vllistcr. 

Ill — The Cottonwood Fight. 

In the month of Novem'ber, 1868, another Scout, 
composed of Messrs. Baker Ballew, Andrew Tarter, 
George Bugby, J. Peter Davidson and the Allen broth- 
ers, Sam, William, Joe and Luther, discovered Indian 
signs at Mansker Lake. The trail which led East 
was hard to follow. Evidently the Indians were few in 
number and had purposely traveled Hpart. The men 

*Near Cisco is an Indian grave, where even yet parties 
frequently find trinkets. Whether or not this is the grave 
above referred to is not known, but the prevailing opinion 
is that it is the same. 


had frequently to dismount and look closely for the 

'V^Tien they had gone thus tediously a mile or two, 
however, a black hound pup, belonging to Mansker 
which had attached itself to the scout, suddenly scented 
the trail and was ofE on a long run, never 
looking to the right or left, as the men loped 
hard after himi all the day long. It is said that a dog 
seldom took up a trail in this way, but when one did it 
was safe to follow the lead. It proved so in this in- 
Fi anee. 

Late in the evening, when two of the men had fallen 
a mile or two beliind, their horses having failed, the 
Scout came upon the Indians, eight in number, at the 
head of Highsaw Cove, a branch of Barton's Creek. As 
soon as they sr.w the * hound, they recognized it as 
their Nemesis, and each Indian greeted him with twc 
rounds of amMunition. The leader of the scout, Mr. 
Ballew, ordered a charge. Then followed a fast and 
furious fight. The Indians who had dismounted were 
at a great disadvantage. To escape they had to climb 
up over rocks and knoll right in the face of the Scout, 
but succeeded in escaping in the gloom of the deepen- 
ing night, leaving only one man on the field, together 
with their horses and blankets, eight in nunaber. As 
the sagacious dog was dead, and, in the light of the 
moon coming over the horizon, each man would stand 
out as a target for the Indians hiding amiong the rocks, 
the Scout wisely decided to be satisfied with the result, 

*If the fine animal had not been killed the men think 
they would have tracked the last Indian to his death. 


rsiH'ciall)- as two of their nunil)L'r, Ballew and Joe 
Allen, were severely wounded and needed attention. 

From the dead Indian's attire, he was recognized 
as the leader of the band. His handsome, fringed buck- 
skin suit, his quiver full of arrows and large, strong 
bow made of mulberry and his shield * were part of the 
trophy the men carried off. Not without regret it must 
be recorded that they also carried his scalp. 

"Look here, boys!" one of the me,n called out after 
the Indians had escaped, "Look here ! Some Indian has 
a badly wounded foot," and he held up a shattered 
stirrup lying near. 

That his conjecture was correct was proved by the 
persistence of Finley, the little dog scout. 

IV^ — TiiE Little Dog Scout. 

Lige Littlefield, J. W. Brashears and Lewis Ellison 
were moving in two wagons, from Parker County to 
Eastland in the winter of 1868. 

On the bank of Palo Pinto Creek in the northeast 
of the county, one of the men discovered a moccasin 
Irack. Like true frontiersmen, they followed the trail 
on the road for several miles with the keenest anticipa- 
tion without a thought of danger. 

*Mr. William Allen still has in his possession the bow and 
the shield. The latter was made from the hide of a buf- 
falo's head, cut round, and is about one-half inch thick. A 
strap of leather on the under side, which was worn over the 
thumb, protected the body, and not being: held firmly, a bul- 
let, when it struck the shieli, would glance off instead of 
passing through. The shield measures twenty-two inches 
in diameter. 


"Finley," alert and on the true scent as became a 
.frontier dog, dashed ahead of the wagons. The owner 
of the moccasin, discovering the wagons, turned out of 
the road and hid under the brush and grass. "Finley" 
was not to be outwitted by a "redskin," so he followed 
and began barking loudly. 

On the Indian's rising up to ask for protection, Lige 
Littlefield opejied fire and did not know, until the bul- 
let had done its deadly work, that he had instantly 
killed a lone and deserted squaw. "Finley" did not 
know the difference and barked a chorus over the re- 
mains of the vanquished. The Indian fell on William. 
Allen's Ranch, one-half mile from his house, and from 
one foot being badly mutilated, it was supposed she was 
the one wounded in the skirmish on Highsaw Cove. 

At the head of this cree.k where the fight occurred 
stood a solitary tree. As the vScout turned, leaving the 
dead Indian there, one of the men said, "God has pre- 
pared a sentinel to watch over your miouldering dust." 

V — ^The Stolen Boy and Frank Sanches. 

Frank Sanches was out hunting stock, and stood 
'.rad watched a numerous drove passing on down to the 
Leon for water, hoping to find some of his strayed twc- 
3"ear olds. Imagine his surprise, as the last yearling 
was nearing him and he was about to turn and retrace 
his steps homeward, to see a small boy's head bobbing 
up just behind the calf. On the child's approach he 
found it was a white boy who had been captured by the 
Indians. He had escaped and was following the stock, 


hoping to reach the settlements. Mt. Sanches cared for 
the little boy and returned him. to his people. 

It was about this time and in the same locality that 
Henry Martin, a son-in-law of Mr. Mansker, was killed. 
He was separated from other memlbers of a party who 
were attacked by Indians while rounding up cattle, and 
lost his life. 

VI — Battle Cheek Fight. * 

A great fight with Indians took place on this creek 
in the northwestern part of the County. Three In- 
dians and one white man, Mjr. Lathan, were killed. 
Mr. Eufe Atwood has a skull supposed (from trinkets 
found near) to be that of the chief of the party. Mr. 
J. B. Loyd, who has a son and daughter living in 
Cisco, was one of the scouts. 

I — In the Midst of Life. 

Mr. Coffer was sick with fever and his family was 
in danger of starving. 

Four weeks had he lain prone upon his bed and the 
fever was still high, but his wife was full of cheer and 
strong in hope. 

•Futile efforts were made to secure a description of 
this fight, which gave a name to the creek. It cannot be 
stated definitely whether the attacking party were Rang- 
ers, soldiers, or a scout. 


"Why, husband, think what goodly company we'll 
have if we starve ! Bait we have beans yet — a bucket 
full, and whoever comes to stay with us through the 
night brings something for you. Your fever did not 
run so high to-day, either. There now," she added, 
patting up his pillow, "isn't that better?" 

"You always look on the sunny side, Martha. I'm 
glad you do." 

"T must go bring up the filly before it gets any 
later, 'cause I put her a little farther down toward the 

"Martha ! EDow dangerous !" interposed her hus- 

"The grass is so much better there. Besides, don't 
you see I am buckling on your six shooter, and here's 
'old trusty,' " taking up a gun. "Why, husband, I 
could fight a dozen Indians !" 

But the woman could not deceive her husband. He 
well knew she did not possess the courage she feigned. It 
frightened her even to handle a gun. How could she 
defend herself if attacked ! 

"Dear Lord!" he moaned in an agony of appre- 
hension, "make me well for her sake!" 

"Just the sight of that wood terrifies mie," she whis- 
pered to herself, pausing half way between the house 
and the gate. "I've a good notion not to go after nil — 
but — oh, I guess there's no Indian hiding," and nerv- 
ing herself for the dreaded ordeal, she ran quickly down 
to where the young mure was "lariated out," and waf 
stooping to untie hej- when two Indian? arose from the 


nearest clump of bushes and with a frightful yell let 
fly two arrows. 

The hissing arrows, the sight of the "red demons/' 
their own\\ard rush so paralyzed her that she dropped 
her gun, and a ntoment later fell dead with an arrow 
in her heart. 

Hastily scalping the woman, the Indians mounted 
the fine young mare and were gone. 

The man on the bed with the baby playing by hi.s 
side, listened with bated breath for the first sound of 
his wife's voice. He heard the sharp, quick yell of the 
Indians, then caught the sound of her cry. With one 
effort, he leaped from the bed — and fell. He forgot 
that he was sick, forgot that he had not stood on his 
feet for weeks. 

He raised himself on his elbow, but could see noth- 
ing. He listened for the sound of his wife's running 
feet, but all was still. Again he listened. He heard 
the gallop of the mare he had raised from a colt, and 
he knew the Indians had scalped and probably killed 
the mother of his baby. He raised his voice and called — 

"Martha !" Oh, Marth-e-e !" 

In his horror his voice sounded shrill and clear. 

"She's dead ! Dear Lord, she's dead ! But the dead 
could have heard that call. T\Tiere's the baby?" — feel- 
ing around him. "Is she dead, too? I'll call her. 
Su — ISTo! ISTo! I'm afraid. Why, how warm it is! I 
was cold a moment ago. Bow strong I feel! Martha, 
the fire's made. I'll go feed the filly, I hear her nicker- 
ing. The dawn is breaking." 

One hour later, the neighbor vho came to stay 


through the night, found the man lying on the floor, 
burning with fever and talking incoherently, and the 
baby asleep on the bed. 

"Why, E]artha, are you still asleep?" the sick man 
said, as his neighbor lifted him upon the bed. 

"The filly is gone," he rambled on, "the Indians 
must have stolen her. Thank God, it was not my wife 
i)r baby they got." 

The neighbor gave liim a drink of water and put a 
wet cloth on his head ; then finding the woman lying 
dead, mounted his horse and rode rapidly to the nearest 
house to give the alarm. 

For many days the sick man's life hung in the 
balance, and it was not until the green grass covered 
her grave that he ventured to ask where his wife lay. 

Whether Coffer or the baby are still living could 
not be learned. 

Mir. Keith and Mr. McGough are the authority 
for the above incident. Their recollection of details 
differed slightly, but the result was the same. 

II — In Seauch of a Wife. 

One day, early in 1869, Mts. Blair took her small 
children, leaving Delphia and Charlsie at hom,e to do 
the family wash, and went to see a sick married daugh- 
ter living near. She left a pot of peas and bacon on 
the hearth, with some fried eggs and bread in a skillet 
all ready for the girls' dinner. 

There was small danger of Indians at that time, yet 
the instinct to watchfulness had been well trained, and 
the frontiersman was ever on the alert. 


When the noon hour arrived the girls came in to 
eat their dinner. 

"I'm going to eat my peas first and save the best for 
the last," Delphia remarked. 

'IWell, I'm going to eat the best first," laughed 
Charlsie, "and then I'll know that I have it." A noise 
at the gate aroused the girls and Charlsie, aged thir- 
teen, went to the door. 

Mercy, me! Delphia, it's a big negro man." Her 
sister came to look and cried out, "Charlsie! it's au 
Indian !" The younger girl darted under the foot cur- 
tain of her mother's bedstead, while Delphia hurriedly 
hid herself between the two feather beds. 

The Indian came on, opened the door, looked around, 
(Charlsie watching him through the curtains), went 
to the glass, combed his hair, turned to the fire-place 
and discovered Delphia's eggs as well as Charlie's peas. 
These he quickly dispatched, Scooping up the peas witli 
his hand. 

Mrs. Blair had sent hei little boy, Dave, and a small- 
er girl, Adeline, across the field to her home for some 
medicine. When the bov stepped in at the door, the 
Indian looked up and said, "Come in," but the little 
ten year old lad turned, and catching his sister by the 
hand, made his way back to his mother as fast as hi;i 
legs could carry him, coaxing his sister, when she 
stumbled or fell behind, "Run, Sissie, run, or the Indian 
will catch you." 

As the children did not see the girls, the miothei 
naturally supposed they had. been murdered, and she 
started home, screaming. She was cautioned to so by 


a neighbor's, and not expose herself to a like fate. This 
E.he did, and she and Mr. Bell cautiously appr;ached 
the house, the mother not being able to restrain hei 
grief, as no sign of life appeared about the place. When 
they entered, the Indian rose, held out his hand ajid 
said, "Howdy." ("bobsheely.") Mr. Bell shook hands 
with him. "I don't want to shake hands with yu," 
s.iid Mrs. Blair. "Tell me what you have done with my 

"Why, Ma, here we are !" cried out Charlsie, coming 
out from under the bed, while Delphia at the same 
tine tumbled out from her snug hiding place. The 
uiother, clasping her children to her breast, began shcui;- 
iug. When her Joy had somewhat subsided, she wont up 
rn the Indian and said, "Now, I'll shake handi^ with 
yc-v, I've found my children." 

In the meantime Mr. Blair and M't. Whatley, who 
had been out after board timber, came in. The Indian them to understand that believing the whitt; man 
:\oald not kill the red man if he gave himself i-p, he 
had waited several days for an opportune time. He 
wa.^ guarded closely over night and sent to Dublin next 
morning, from which place the soldiers carried hiin 
!>:iek to ihe * Comanche?. 

On their arrival in Dublin an interpreter was found 

*Mr. Keith and Mr. Smith say he was sent to the Co- 
manches. Mr. Keith says the Tonkawiays wanted him, but 
the soldiers would not give him up. Mr. Sam Allen has 
always understood he was given to the "Tonks," who madf; 
him "run the gauntlet" — covering a given space and not 
being hit by the squaws and children lined up. As he wa<i 
hit, they killed and scalped him. 


in Mr. Bob l^arton. The Indian told him his squaw had 
been in a raid some \\-i'elvs bi'fore and as she had never re- 
turned, he had come to hunt for her. 

ifr. Barton told him of the accidental killing of the 
wounded squaw and as the times agreed he decided it 
was his wife. 


The Texas Eangees. 

It is not definitely known when the Texas Eanger 
service was instituted, but as early as the colonization 
of Texas under Austin, conipanies of volunteers were 
formed to repel Indian invasions. 

The Congress of the Republic, after Texas had gain- 
ed her independence, made provision for a mounted 
force to guard the frontier which, in 1836, was Nacog- 
doches, Houston and San Antonio; but ''it was in the 
Mexican War of 1846-1848 that the Texas :Mounted Vol- 
unteers in the service of the United States, under such 
noted leaders as Walker, Hays and Gillespie, achieved 
world-renowned famie and clothed the name of Texas 
Ranger with its traditional glory." 

The "State Police" of the reconstruction period 
which became so odious to the citizens of the State was, 
in no sense, a part of the Ranger service. The former 
was characterized by outrage and lawlessness; the latter 
by intrepid acts of bravery, self-sacrificing courage, calm- 
ness in danger, and a recklessness of self-preservation 
that will be the admiration of ages. It was at first 


scini-military, neither officers nor men wore uniforms, 
there was no strict discipline, no music — only mid- 
night rides in tracking a foe, only cool daring in en- 

The Eanger service was an outgrowth of the times. 
No military in the world ever excelled the early Eanger 
in devotion to duty or obedience to orders. 

When it is rem,embered that all over the broad ex- 
]ianse of Texas there was a moving frontier line made 
by the hardy Anglo-Saxon pioneer, and many hundreds 
of roving, hostile Indians composed of numerous tribes, 
each with a stronghold in the fastnesses of the moun- 
tains of the unsettled West, it will readily be under- 
stood that a mounted service for frontier protection 
must from necessity be maintained. Again, when the 
v'astness of the unsettled country is taken into consid- 
eration, it is not to be wondered at that the Indian was 
not the only menace of the frontier, nor yet, his oft- 
time ally, the secretive Miexican, but that bands of des- 
peradoes infested the country. In all times of frontier 
settlement there has always been a border warfare bom 
of necessity — so it was in Texas. 

When the Eanger service was organized, Texas had 
no money; the times and conditions did not warrant an ef- 
fort toward a strictly disciphned military body; but an 
armed force, both for internal and bordpr protection, was 
demanded. This was not alone because of the foes men- 
tioned that threatened her welfare, but the demand was 
accentuated by the loose characters that drifted hither 
and thither, ofttimes renegades from Justice, caring 
little if they did murder, or were themselves dispatched. 


"Out of this combination of circumstances and the 
necessities arising therefrom, was the Eanger service 
evolved, and so efficient and valuable did it prove that, 
as soon as practicable the organization was given offi- 
cial recognition and a legal status and title." 

;W'hen Texas was a part of Mexico she needed the 
Rangers; when Independence perched aloft her banner, 
the frontier Battalion sustained her; when she entered 
the galaxy of Stars as the one of greatest possible 
magnitude, the Volunteer Companies protected her 
frontier; when she cam,e out of the Union, standing 
n'ith the glorious, honorable minority, she needed more 
than ever before the loyalty of her brave sons; and, then, 
when again she re-entered a united government, her 
Southern flag furled, her individual rights assailed and 
Imposed upon, governed by aliens, and looked upon as 
a reprobate, did she need the fearless strength of the 
Texas *Eanger. 

In the year 18 — Captain Whiteside, who formerly 
lived in Cisco, but now deceased, commanded a body 
of Rangers and was located at Ranger Camp. This 
was near the site of the town of Eanger and gave the 
village its name. 

*A detachment of 'Rangers, mounted, ready to start, was 
sketched at Blair's Fort in 1863 by a Mr. Stuart. Mr. Jim Mat 
Stephens of Dublin, Tex., owns the picture and is having 
it paintei by an artist in St. Louis. For further information 
of thle Ranger service, see Scarff's Comprehensive History of 







PERIOD 11-1873-1881 



The Moving Frontier Line. 

The line of settlements in the Coimfy did not change 
I'c'jr several years, but the force and power of the con- 
stantly increasing flow of human beings from the other 
States, which was stopped temporarily in the populated 
centers by the civil strife and the fear of the Indian in 
the West — could no longer be checked. 

The Rev. C. Brashears, who came to the county in 
the autumn of 1872, writes of the conditions existing at 
that time: 

"Six families at or near McGough Springs, three 
families at Mansker Lake, one settlement at Flanna- 
gan's, consisting of a cow-ranch and one family ; another 
on South Palo Pinto Creek of two or more fainilies : 
these, with two families on the Sabanno, three at FjIH- 
son's Spring, and three or four at Dtesdemona, made 
up the entire population of Eastland County when I 
came here. 

"This was a fine stock country. Garaie was plentiful 
— such as bear, wolf, deer, turkey, buffalo, a few pan- 
ther, wild cat, catamount, fox, opossum, skunk, and 
Indian. There were wild horses here at that time and 
any number of cattle. This was then a fine hog coun- 
try, as there was always a heavy mast. Hogs were plen- 


When it is Temeinbered that in 1860 there were 
ninety-nine inhabitants in Eastland County, and in 
1870 only eighty-eight (including women and children), 
the conditions prevailing at that time in this section 
will more readily be appreciated. 

From Mr. Brashear's letter it will be seen that the 
frontier line of 18G3 still existed in 1872, one year bo- 
fore the County was organized, and was marked by 
Flannagan's Eanch, MteGough Springs, and Jewell. 
Although the increase in population in oce year was 
sufficient to organize the County as recorded in the fol- 
lowing chapter, yet the name of no man has been dis- 
covered who located west of the line above referred to 
prior to 1872. 

It is pleasant to note, however, that once the County 
«'as organized and its possibilities known, a steady in- 
flux of people began. In 1873 scarcely the seventy-five 
required number of voters could be found; in 1875, 
when the County Town was permanently located at 
Eastland City, there were one hundred and twenty- 
three voters, and in 1880 the census gave four thousand 
eight hundred and fifty-five as the population of the 

On November 25, 1874, the last raid of Indian? 
through this County occurred.* They came down by 

*MesErs. Sam Allen, of Van Horn, an 1 K. Pemberton, ol 
Stephenville, are the authority for this statement. Judgp 
Calhoun thinks a raid Into Comanche County, passing 
through the western part of Eastland, occurred at a later 
date, and a little incident related by Mr. Pemberton might 
seem to substantiate this opinion. 

One day Mr. Frank Roach, who resided in the south- 
ern part of Eastland, had gone alone to mill in Comanche 


the ea!^ll'rn route, and on Barton's Creek Mr. Ellison 
was shot off his horse, and Mr. Leslie killed on Indian 
Creek. ^Messrs. Sam Allen, Silas C. Buck, Tom Gibson 
and ^laek Singleton were four of eighteen men who 
chased the Indians one hundred and fifty miles. 

During this period, 1873-1881, the old line of set- 
tlements was wiped out. Six families (names given 
elsewhere), stopped in the Eising Star Country; Major 
]Munn, who had to go eighteen miles to McGousrh 
Springs for his mail (which Pofitmaster Father Mc- 
Gough kept in a shoe-box under his bed), settled at 
Nimrod, and lives on the land he first purchased; B.. F. 

County. On his return he met an acquaintance, who 
reined up his horse by Mr. Roach's wagron. 

"How is it you are out alone? Aren't you afraid of the 

Mr. Roach replied: 

"No. Me and the Indians like each other; we get alon? 
along- all right." 

Hardly had these words passed when a, squad of In- 
dians were seen coming around a thicket straight toward 
them. The man put spurs to his horse and was gone. Mr. 
Roach leaped from his seat, cut one of his fine young mules 
from the harness and sprung upon his back. No sooner 
was this feat accomplished than the mule, on whose back 
man had never sat, began to pitch and to plunge, while the 
Indians bore down upon the (defenseless man who found him- 
self in such a. close place. The mule, instead of going i^own 
the road as Mr. Roach urged him to do, rushed into a 
thicket, which the Indians at once surrounded, laughing up- 
roarously at the antics of the mule, and helped to keep 
things interesting to the man by plying him with arrows. 
Suddenly, however, the mule made a dash for the road and 
damaged his reputation by ^loing exactly as he was desired 
to do — made tracks so fast that the Indians were outdi.«- 
tanced. They took revenge by burning the wagon and it.^ 
contents and carrie'l off the other animal. Mr. Roach lost 
an eye in the encounter, but was always able to appreciate 
the good race that he m>ade. 


Weddington grazed his catle in the northwestern part 
of the County, as also did his neighbors,, Charnel High- 
tower, Billy Stevens, John, Crowd, Bill, Hilly and Joe 
Dennis and Joe Funk. Mr. Drake and sons settled 
lower down on the Leon. 

In the Cisco Country were Messrs. N. Danvers, W. 
B. Cobb, Albert Stephens, Eobert and Stuart Cone, 
N. Turknette, John Davis. Josh and John Morris, Lacy, 
Ehoads, Bunson, Townsend, T. B. Johnson, J. J. Wal- 
lace, J. P. Montgomery, John Lane, 0. H. Lovelady, 
Frank Young, B. L. Pate, J. F. Loony, M. V. Palmer, 
Jim Caradine and M. B. Owens. * 

Thus was the frontier line pushed farther and 
farther west, and the civilization of the Virginias, Car- 
olinas, Kentucky, Pennsylvania, Georgia, Alabama and 
Mississippi found am'ong this moving throng, tip-toeing 
to see across and venture on and on as the line strode 


Oeganization of the County. 

The Thirteenth Representative District in 1870 
comprised Johnson, Hood, Parker, Palo Pinto and Jack 
Cou.nties with the unorganized Counlies of Stephens, 
Eastland, Throckmorton, Shackelford. Callahan. Tay- 
lor, Jones, Young and Haskell attached. 

*These name.s have been supplied by R. P. Weddington, 
R. G. Luse and I. Lamb. Doubtless there are many other 
names these gentlemen failed to remember. 


There camo a time, however, when the citizens of 
Eastland liogan to want to do business at home. The 
odious State Police had been disbanded, and regularly 
appointed Rangers now guarded the rapidly moving 
frontier line. Hardy pioneers pushed westward and 
Eastland was no longer a frontier country. 'Many new 
settlers were coming into the County, land was being 
put into farms, substantial houses were going up, but for 
a time no man came forward to take the lead in the 
movement for organization. 

The 12th Legislature, which met in 1872, had passed 
into history, but the prominent citizens of Eastland, 
all of whom devoutly wished for organization, had done 
nothing toward its accomplishment. This inactivity on 
the part of the older men nerved to action Silas C. 
Buck, a young lawyer living on the Davidson "Ranch. 
He made his own plans, had himself appointed Deputy 
District Clerk of Palo Pinto County and went to work. 

In Section 26 of Chapter 75 of the General Laws 
of the 7th Legislature, which met in 1858, an act 
creating Eastland and other counties, reads: "The 
County may be organized as follows : Whenever the bona 
€de, free, white male inhabitants thereof (including 
all such recognized as citizens by the Constitution of 
this State) over twenty-one vears of age, to the number 
of at least seventy-five, may petition the Presiding Jus- 
tice * of an adjoining county, or the nearest organized 
county, aslcing such organization, and the person pre- 
senting the petition (being a creditable citizen of the 

♦From 1869 to 1876 there were no County Judges In Texas. 


county from which the petition emanates) shall testify 
upon oath and in writing before such Presiding Justice 
that the names subscribed to the petition are those of 
bona fide inhabitants of such county, possessing the 
qualifications aforesaid, and were affixed to said petition 
by each of said persons himself; then it shall be the 
duty of such Presiding Justice forthwith to order an 
election in said county for county officers, observing the 
provisions, as far as applicable, of the general election 
laws," etc., etc. 

The first thing to do, according to the foregoing law, 
was to secure the signatures of seventy-five "bona fide, 
free, white, male citizens" to a petition addressed to 
Presiding Justice J. H. Baker of Palo Pinto, asking 
for an election to be ordered. Armed with a six- 
shooter and bowie knife — for in 1873 there was still 
danger from Indians — Mr. Buck rode over the County, 
hunting all the bona fide citizens. 

One afternoon he stopped at a little doggery a couple 
of miles from W. H. Mansker's, where he found several 
free, white, male citizens exercising their liberties. The 
boisterous sounds within the ten by twelve log room in- 
dicn,ted an excessive nearness to shoals which warned 
the young lawyer to linger on the outside of the open 
door. Two of the men (called Tom and Mike because 
their names could not be learned), became involved in 
an altercation, and presently Mike got the drop on Tom 
i.nd covered him with a pistol. ISTo sooner did he ac- 
complish this feat, however, than he, in turn, was cov- 
ered by another man, named Stewart. At this moment. 
Buck became interested, and fingered his guns and felt 


of his knife, as he watched and waited for a chance to 
help the "under-dog." Fortunately for all concerned, 
some adjustment of the difficulty was effected. The so- 
liciting petitioner went in and secured the signatures 
of the free, white males, and then turned in at Mr. 
^lanskcrs for the night. 

When about sixty-five names had been secured, 
Buck, who did not know how the law read, exactly, car- 
ried the petition to Presiding Justice Baker, who or- 
dered an election to be held on December 2, 1873, with 
the following result : 

1st. MeGough Springs — J. B. McG'ough, Justice of 
the Peace. 

2nd. Flannagan's Eanch — W. F. Hale, Justice of 
the Peace. 

3rd. Allen's Mill — John W. Gibson, Justice of 
the Peace. 

4th. Hogtown Watson, Justice of the Peace. 

5th. Jewell — E. E. Head, Justice of the Peace. 

H. Rchmick, Sheriff; Clerk District Court, A. J. 

On February following, an election, which was held 
to locate the County Town resulted in Flannaoan's 
Eanch being chosen and the name of Merriman was 
given to it. By some move, known, perhaps, only to as- 
tute politicians, although McGough Springs was des- 
i.smated as the First Precinct, and J. B. McGough 
elected from that locality, yet, W. F. Hale, of Flanna- 
gan's Eanch was made Presiding Justice, and Merri- 
man became the First Precinct. 

The citizens now felt secure in their organization 


and were ready for work. Mart Owens and Miss Town- 
send went to Justice Gibson to get married. The Jus- 
tice refused to marry the couple, and said that he would 
resign his office before he would attempt such a thing. 
Mtr. Owens, insisting, secured a form of ceremony from 
a friend, and after 'studying this all night, Mr. Gibson 
consented and married the couple. 

isow came the startling news that that oracle of 
the law. Captain W. C. Veale, of Palo Pinto, had said 
that "the organization of Eastland wouldn't hold water." 
This statement sent young Buck to Austin. He inter- 
viewed Governor Coke, a personal friend, who sent him 
to his Secretary of State. Colonel DeBerry. 

"Xow, Colonel DeBerry," said Buck, "if you can't 
issue commissions to these officers who have been elected, 
I AN'ant this Legislature to pass laws that will legalizp 
the organization so you can." 

"Here, give me their names, I'll fix them alright," 
answered Colonel DeBerry, filling out the commissions 
and affixing his signature." 

To miake the organization doubly strong, Mr. Buck 
remained two or three weeks, and through Senator.- 
Jack Ball of Weatherford and Mjajor Erath of Waco, 
succeeded in having all the necessary laws passed. With 
copies of these bills properly signed, in his pocket, to- 
gether with the officers' commissions, the young lawyer 
made his way back to Eastland. 

When it is rememhered that there were few news- 
papers, and that the railroad still lingered among the 
protecting pines of Marshall, Texas, this lack of knowl- 
edge of procedure in such an undertaking as the or- 


ganization of a county is not surprising and one is able 
to more tlioroughly appreciate young Buck's grit and 
nerve. * 


some of the first voters. 

James Henky Calhoun. 

Aside from the inherent manhood that came to him 
from a noble and godly ancestry, our present District 
Judge lies close to the hearts of the inhabitants of 
Eastland County from two primary causes. He is one 
of the first voters and has served the County and Dis- 
trict in an ofiicial capacity several times. Then, during 
the protracted drouth of 1886 and 1887, Judge Cal- 
houn, who was serving as State Senator from this, the 
39th District, accomplished the creation of a special 
committee for the relief of the drouth sufferers, was 
made its chairman, and did more than anyone else in 
securing the $100,000.00 appropriated by the 30th Leg- 
islature for that purpose. 

Judge Calhoun, who is a native of Greorgia and 
graduated from Homer College in Louisiana in 1870, 
came to Texas in 1871 and located at Waco, where he 
read law under General Tom Harrison, and was licensed 
to practice August 8, 1873. He came at once to this 
County and was here when it was organized. Tn the 

*Mr. Buck gave the above information in a personal in- 
terview, and it was corroborated by Judge Callioun and 


election for officers in 1876, he was made Coiinty Judge 
— the first to hold that office in Eastland. He has 
served two terms as District Attorney and has had an 



extensive land practice, but has never confined himself 
to any particular branch of the profession. He is rec- 
ognized as a lawyer of eminent ability. In his oratory 
he is eloquent and impassioned, and merits all the boo- 
prs that have come to him, 



Judge Calhoun is a mem,ber of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, South, of the Masonic Fraternity, 
and the Independent Order of Odd Fellows, 

He was married to Miss Jennie Conner in Eastland 
Jity on January 1, 1883, and has three children. His 
home is in Cisco. "He is a true friend, a generous foe, 
and a lover of the pure and good.'" 


In the Fall of IS-'iS, Mr. Allen came from Missouri 
and stopped for a short while in the southern part of 
Palo Pinto County. He found the people to be brave 
and generous. The country, then, he writes, "Was 
thickly settled by bands of friendly Indians, who lived 


by hunting wild game, all kinds of which were plentiful. 
During the year 1859 — I had moved to Eastland 
County then — ^the Indians became very hostile and re- 
nained so for fifteen years. The settlers had to be con- 
tinually on their guard." 

In 1865 Mt. Allen settled on a ranch on South Palo 
Pinto Creek (this County), which he still owns. It now 
aggregates nine thousand acres. He lives in Strawn, 
and has a wife and five children. 

J. M. Ellison. 

At the time of the Indians' first raid through this 
County in December, 1859, they stole Dr. Richardson's 
horses. Mr. Ellison, with six others, followed them 
three days through a fearful snowstorm without any 
success. "From that time on I was either on a cow hunt 
or an Indian trail. Two weeks was the longest 1 ever 
did without bread." Clothing was hard to get. Calico 
cost fifty cents a yard. Mr. Ellison was sadly in neid 
of a suit of clothes. He writes : 

"I went out one day and killed two bucks, dressed 
their hides and made me a pair of pants. Then I killed 
some doe, dressed their hides and made me a shirt — 
then I was all right for the brush, only I had no shoes. 
I dug a trough out of a cotton wood log, tanned the 
leather and made me some." 

Mr. Ellison lives near Gorman, where he first set- 
tled in October, 1858. 



W. C. M;cGouGH. 

In Twigg County, Georgia, December 11, 1836, Mr. 
^IcGough was born, and moved to Parker County, 
Texas, when twenty years old. On January 18, 1858, 
he was married to Miss Paulina Birch of Bosque 
County, and nxoved to Eastland November 1, 1860. Pie 
has lived here continuously — at McGtough Springs, near 
Eastland City, since 1863. He is a member of the 
Baptist Church. 



Five Generations. 

The accompanying illustration represents five gen- 
erations. Captain J. J. Keith, born in Alabama in 
1822, and Miss Isabel Ely, born in Virginia in 1823, 
were married in Arkansas March 8, 1839, and emi- 


1. J. J. Keith, 82. Isabel Keith, 81. 

3. T. E. Keith, .57. Caroline J. Keith, .52. 

3. Easter Grantham Keith, 26, 4. Crissie Richardson, 18. 

5. Natha Riohardpon, 10 months. 


grated to Titus County, Texas, in 1844, thus becoming 
eitizens of the Republic of Texas. While here, on De- 
cember 10, 1846, their oldest son, T. \^., was born. In 
l8()(), while living m Erath CViunty, this family with 
the <,)"Xeals and others, fordficd themselves at Dublin 
(ihus founding that prDsjjerous town) and remained 
liiere until 'April, 1863. Thiy limdly located at Mansker 
Lake, where Mr. Keith engaged in stockraising. 
Plere their daughter Ellen, Mts. Derrington of Sabanno, 
was born, who was the hrst girl baby born in the coun- 
ty. While residing in Erath iLr. Keith raised a com- 
pany of Rangers and was made their Captain. 

This venerable couple have lived for the last twelvr 
years at Curtis with their daughter. i\Irs. Elizabeth 
Pressley, and have more than one hundred descend- 
ants. On the 8th of March, 1904, they will have been 
married sixty-five years. Out of their thirteen children 
eight are still living. 

Their oldest son, T. E. Keith, has been prominently 
connected with the history of Eastland since 1863, when 
he "scouted for Indians." On July 4, 1864, he was mar- 
ried at I\lansker Lake to Miss Caroline J. Arthur, 
daughter of William. J. Arthiir. and now lives near 

"Uncle Tom','"' as he is familiarly called, has served 
the county as Comiaissioner and Justice of the Peace 
:nany times. When he realized that he needed the edu- 
cation that he had been deprived of by having been born 
and reared on the frontier, he set to work with rare en- 
ergy and tenacity of purpose to remedy the defect, and 
at the age of fifty-four was admitted to the bar after 



satisfactory examination. Honor to such persistent ef- 


The first Sheriff rf Eastland was born in Ar- 
kansas, December 28, 1843. He enlisted in the Con- 


federate Army (1861) as First Lieutenant in the 7th 
Arkansas Regiment, and served until the surrender 
in 1865. 

In 1868 he came to Eastland and engaged in the 
cattle business. \'\1ien the County was organized in 1873, 


he held the office of Sheriff for eight consecutive years. 
He has been merchandizing since his term of office ex- 
pired. He is a member of the Christian Church. 

The Stockton Family. 

In 1868, lice and Sam Stockton, accompanied by 
their two sisters, Amanda and Sallie Ivie, emigrated 
to Eastland and finding a desirable place near Desde- 
mona, put up a log cabin, and rested at easL'. The 
game in the woods around them supplied the table, and 
the meal barrel and flour bin were full. Their ease was 
not at all disturbed when Sallie told the boys the salt 
was low. "Why, we can do without salt for two 
months," Ike insisted. 

At last came a day when dinner was prepared with- 
out any salt. "My, what in the world is the matter 
with this venison?" Ike asked, when he began to eat. 

"There's no salt in it," replied Sallie. 

"Well, my gracious, make some mush." She did so. 
It was still worse. 

"Eed man, or no red man," the boy exclaimed, as he 
hurriedly saddled his horse, "this boy has got to be 
salted," and he rode to Stephenville after salt. 

The family spent eight years in this lonely log 
cabin, with the shade of the green mantle of the oaks 
and elms as their summer rendezvous, and the babbling 
spring, one hundred yards away, as their watering place. 
They now live in New Mexico. 


C. C. High. 

Mr. High was born in Georgia, March 7, 1851, and 
came to Texas with his father when only five years old. 
A.t the age of fourteen he served an apprenticeship in 

C. C. HIGH, Eastland 

a blacksmith shop in Crockett, where he was married at 
the age of twenty to Miss Elizabeth Howell. 

He emigrated to Eastland in 1873 and stopped at 
McGough Springs. He served two years in the Texas 
Ranger Company "A" under Captain Walder. On the 


lot he still occupies, Mr. High put up the first black- 
smith shop established in the county. 

Mr. High is a pioneer Odd Fellow, and assisted in the 
organization of the first lodge in Eastland. He is a 
Past Grand and Past Chief Patriarch, and held the office 
of Treasurer in the Eastland City Lodge for sixteen 

Mr. High is an open-hearted and typical frontiers- 
man, true as the steel which he hamimers. 

OscAE Cook 

Came to the. county in 1872, and in the organization 
he held the election at Jewell. He writes: "I had to 
cake the ballot to Bill McGough's (twelve miles) and 
then Bill carried it to Palo Pinto to be counted. I was 
on the first Grand Jury of the first Court — which was 
held at Schmiick School House. Then we held Court 
on the Colony Fork at Barny BartholomeAv's and next 
at Eastland. It took nearly all of us boys to hold Court. 

"I had to go to Comanche (thirty miles) for black- 
smithing and for bread. Thomas Mansker, Mr. Justis, 
Simp Evans, Will Thanish, Thomas Marsh, Calvin 
Wadkins, and myself were all who lived on the Sabanno 
then. Our nearest neighbors were six and twelve miles 
The Indians took our horses from us twice before we 
had neighbors enough to keep them away A fellow 
felt skittish when out cutting poles to fence with, plow- 
ing, or going to mill. But after the county was organ ' 
ized it settled up rapidly." 


John" Thomas Townsend^ 

Who was born in May, 1830, was married to Miss 
Mary Josephine Jenkins in Kentucky, in 1854. Mts. 
Townsend's father, Charles Jenkins, who was a delegate 
to the National Convention that nominated James K. 
Poii for President of the United States, died in East- 
land four years ago at the age of ninety-seven. 

]\fo-. Townsend, with his brother, Ira Townsend, and 
others, located five miles west of Eastland City in 1873. 
The nearest neighbor (W. C. McGongh) was ten miles 
away; supplies were hauled from Dallas, one hundred 
and fifty miles; and the buffalo and antelope were still 
roaming the prairie lands, which have since been cov- 
ered with timber. Fifty wolves in one bunch, turkeys so 
thick on the trees the limb would break, and encounters 
with the Mexican lion are somie of the experiences of 
this pioneer. 

The unbounded hospitality of the Townsend Hanch 
Avas typical of the frontiersman, and was the chief 
means for the dissemination of local news and from 
the world 'nback East." 

No fences disturbed the freedom of the cattle in 
these days. "Grass and water were plentiful, land and 
cattle were cheap. Lands which are now worth from 
twenty-five to thirty dollars an acre could have been pur- 
chased then, at most, for from fifty to seventy-five cent.=i 
an acre." 

Or. E. D. Townsend, a prominent physician of 
Jjlano, Texas, and Mrs. T?. F. Kelly of Eastland, are 
Mr. Townsend's livinsr children. One son. Dr. W. IT. 
Townsend, died in Llano, August, 1902. 


Mr. Townsend, who lives with his wife at home in 
Eastland City, says: "If I could find another Bast- 
land County as it was thirty years ago, I would emi- 
grate to the hunter's paradise at once." 

Me. J. L. Duffer. 

Mr. J. L. D^ifEer, who served on the first jury in 
Eastland, -was the first man to be married in the County 
after it was organized, as the records in County Clerk 
Cox's office will show. 

Squire Watson of the Alameda Precinct, (Hog-town, 
the voting place), performed the ceremony, and Miss 
Mary Boling was the lady he married. 


Was born in Kentucky July 8, 1846. He came to 
Texas with his father, who located in Parker County in 
1851, where he remained until 1872, when he settled in 
Eastland. Mr. Bra shears was married December 32, 
1863, and has six children, all reared in this county. 
He is pastor of a Baptist Church at Ellison's Spring, 
where he lives . 

Dr. Jackson Evans. 

There was no physician nearer than Stephenville, 
Erath County, when Dr. Evans arrived in Eastland, 
March 10, 1873. He was called at once to see a very 
sick woman who, although she had been stricken vrith 
fever three weeks previous, had not been visited by a 


physician. It is to Dr. Evans' credit that she was soon 

The territory coverd by this iirst doctor reminds 
one of the extent of the pioneer "circuit rider." From 
the Forth Fork of Palo Pinto Creek to Desdemona, 


and from Barton's Creek in Erath County to the limits 
of civilization in Eastland were the bounds of his calls. 
"My three children were then very small, but I had 
often to leave them and their mother alone when there 
was danger of Indians. We stopped near a cow-ranch 
for protection — as there was no town in the county — 


and we are still at our old stand with all the practice 
1 can do. 

''Eastland was a paradise for hunters, when I came 
here — cougar, bear, deer and turkey in abundance. I 
killed all I needed for family use, while out visiting the 
sick. One day, just one mile from where I now live, a 
party of men (of which 1 was a meniber) killed four 
bear, while another party in hearing of us killed two 

"Many jokes were perpetrated on Eastland County 
in those days," continues Dr. Evans. "I heard a trav- 
eler, who was passing along the road near my house, 
say, 'I would not have this County and one dollar.' We 
little thought then how valuable this shinery was."* 

Dr. Evans and wife have five children. 

Joseph Peter Davidson 

Was born November 5, 1828, and was reared in 
Giles County, Tennessee. He moved to Texas in IS-'iS 
and stopped two years in Bosque County. In 1865 he 
settled permanently in Bystland — "Davidson's Ranch" 
is one of the old landmarks of the county. 

TTntil the year 1870 he engaged in the cattle busi- 
ness and farming, when ho was appointed District Sur- 
veyor of the Palo Pinto Land District, which included 

*It is interesting to note the ignorance of the early set- 
tlers regarding the productiveness of the soil. Then it was 
a cattle country and a "hunter's paradise," but it was also 
an unknown and undeveloped agricultural land, with the 
rich chocolate loams of the eastern part of the County, the 
sandy loams of the middle, and the light, enduring sand, 
with its clay subsoil, of the south and west, as the products 
raised in great abundance to-day verify. 


Eastland. In 1873, when Eastland was organized, he 
was elected County Surveyor and held the office until 
1878, when he declined to serve longer. Many old set- 
tlers testify that he helped them in locating good sur- 
veys without a thought of remxineration. 

Mr. Davidson was a member of the Miethodist 
Church, South, and a Eoyal Arch Mbson. His chief 
characteristics were his patience, integrity, purity of 
life and boundless hospitality. Hospitality on the fron- 
lier has always cast a sheen and glamour of dignified 
nobility, but few carried that virtue so far as "Uncle 
Peter.'' For nearly twenty years on his ranch he kept 
"open house" for all who came or went — traveler, pros- 
pector, homeseeker, stranger, all were royally enter- 

He died at Strawn, 1897, and was buried by the 
Eastland Masonic Lodge, of which he was a charter 


In the fall of 1872 M*. Higgins settled on the farm 
where he now lives, six miles southeast of Eastland City 
on the Leon B,ivor. One year later he married. 

"In those days we lived in log cabins, usually with 
one door, no window, roof weighted on, and puncheon 
floor. We went in ox wagons to Stephenville or Co- 
manche to mill. Stephenville was my posfoffire " 

Mr. Higgins owns a fine farm with a good home 
and plenty of stock, His wife is a daughter of W, C, 



Eastland City. 

"There' is a tide in the affairs of man, 
^Which, taken at the flood, leads on to fortune; 
We must take the current when it serves. 
Or lose our venture." — Shakespeare. 

Two young men in a land office in Dallas pondered 
over the truth contained in the quotation above as they 
again went over the map before them. 

"We must take the current when it serves. 
Or lose the venture." 

" 'The current serves' now, for they won't put up 
buildings at Merriman, I am told," said one. 

"We must take it, then, or else lose our venture." 

These young men, late of the University of Ken- 
tucky, had just bought from J. A. Speers the C. S. 
Betts survey, three hundred and twenty acres, centrally 
located, and had conceived the idea of moving the 
County Town from Merriman, and locating it on their 
own land. 

On their way to Mansker Lake to have District 
Clerk A. J. Stuart, who resided there, to record their 
deed, the young men met J. H. Elli^^OTl, tn whom 
they disclosed their purpose. "Tt can never be done," 
he said. The adverse opinion of the old frontiersTTinj) 
did not daunt them. They located the southwest corner 
of the C. S. Betts survey, selected a slightly elevated 
spot of ground between the 'North and South forks of 
the Leon River, made a rough sketch, and staked on I 




1 ' 

1 c 

r T- 


1 ( r 







the public square of Eastland, (the name the Legisla- 
ture had provided for the county town), January 15, 


After having emiployed a Mr. Allen to cut logs for 
the cabin to be raised in May, the young men, Jacl< 
Daugherty and C. U. Connellee, returned to Dallas. 

In JUay Mr. Connellee, accompanied by J. B. Am- 
merman, who had become a member of the firm, re- 
turned. The survey of the town was completed, the log 
house put up where the La Roe Hotel (Mr. Greenfield 
proprietor) now stands, snd a frame store-house built 
on the lot now occuped by the Eastland County Bank, 
in which was put a stock of general merchandise. The 
goods and the lumber for the store were hauled in wag- 
ons from Dallas, the nearest railroad point, by way of 
Granbury and Stephenville, thence on the Fort Griffin 
military road by way of Desdemona and Merriman. 
From a point near where Uncle George Moss now lives, 
and where the Texas and Pacific railroad crosses Colony 
Creek, a road was blazed to the new town, and the 
wagons proceeded. The drivers were Heath Hale and 
Greorge Martin. The founders encouraged settlement 
by offering a deed fee simple of any lot to any person 
who would put up either a residence or a business house. 

Six miles west of Eastland lived John T. Townsend, 
R. S. Drake, Ira Townsend, Tip Saunders, William 
MJunn, and a few others lived on the South Pork of the 
Leon; lower down the stream, nearer Eastland, were 
Uncle Sandy Miartin. Jack Drake, and others, and about 
two miles northeast of the town C. R. Johnson 
lived. He is the father of Dr. J. L. Johnson. With Mr. 


Johnson boarded Mr. Connellee and his bride, and three 
bachelors, — J. E. Gold, John S. Bedford, and William 

Gwaltney, who were surveyors and interested with 
Mr. Johnson in farming and cattle raising. Down at 
Mansker Lake, at A. J. Stewart's, there boarded a young 
lawyer, who spent his spare time dreaming of a practice 
that would some day be his. HSs dreams came true and 
he presides over the Ddstrict Court to-day. 

A number of people availed themselves of the op- 
portunity to get a lot in town. J . F. Davenport, now of 
Cisco, built a house on the northeast corner of the 
square, where Downtain's brick building stands, 
and merchandised. Isham Finch built a hotel 
on the southeast corner of the square. "It 
was beyond question the best public place 
of entertainment in the county at that tim'e 
— there being no others." Major J. H. Davenport, for- 
merly State Senator from Bell County, established a 
law office on the south side of the square and published 
the first newspaper in the county, "The Eeview." J. 
H. Calhoun, present District Judge, built a law office on 
the north side of the square in 1876, which is now the 
oldest house standing. 

Other lawyers who established themselves in the 
town at an early date were Frank Stanley, now a dis- 
tinguished lawyer of Fort Worth, and D. B. Corley, the 
ilrst lawyer who came to Eastland City. The latter was 
made, Postmaster and established his office in Daugherty, 
Connellee & Ammerm'an's store. Mr. Corley exhibited 
the orginal "Uncle Tom's Cabin" at the Chicago 


World's Fair, and is author of a book entitled "The 
Lives of the Apostles." 

J. H. and J. C. Cox merchandized under the firm 
name of Cox Brothers. J. H. Bversdale put up a saw- 
mill and manufactured what was known as "rawhide 
lumber" out of the oaks that covered the hills. This 
enterprise greatly facilitated the building of small houses. 
Later, Mr. Eversdale engaged in the mercantile busi- 
ness and had the misfortune to lose his stock of goods 
by fire in 1885. 

Eev. J. C. Weaver, a Methodist minister, held the 
first divine service in the town in the unfinished log 
hotel being put up by Isham Pinch. Rev. J. M. Lingo 
organized the first Baptist Church. 

In the summer of 1875, Daugherty,- Connellee and 
Ammerman made a proposition to the citizens to move 
the County Town from Merriman to Eastland. The elec- 
tion, held August 2, 1875, resulted as follows: East- 
land, sixty-seven; Merriman, nine; McGough Springs, 
forty-four; Center of the County, five, and scattering, 
two. The gentlemen making the proposition had agreed 
to erect a two-story stone building and donate the sec- 
ond floor to the County for a court room as long as de- 
sired, and entered into a bond of $5000.00 for its faith- 
ful performance. This building is still standing on 
the northwest corner of the square. 

The county assumed a new dignity. The court had 
a home and offices, and a number of lawyers located in 
the town: J. E. Elemming, later Judge of the Dis- 
trict; J. M. Moore, son of Chief Justice Mbore of the 
Supreme Court of Texas, and who was appointed Sec- 


retary of State under Grovernor Boss; Judge E. T. Hil- 
liard; J. E. Thomas of Dallas, who served as County At- 
torney; T. H. Conner, now Chief Justice of the Court 
of Appeals of Fort Worth, Texas; G. W. Perryman; 
A. Lawrence, who held the office of County Attorney 
and Judge; E. B. Truly, at one timie Diistrict Clerk; 
and B. F. Collins. 

Daugherty, Connellee and Ammerman offered the 
Texas and Pacific Railway Company one-fourth of the 
lots in the town if the road were built through East- 
land. In October, 1880, the first engine rolled into the 
county town, which .remained the terminus for several 
months. J. B. Ammerman was made station agent. 

Eastland was now the distributing point for all 
towns ISTorth, South and West; and also the starting 
place for numerous stage and United States mail lines, 
during which time it was a flourishing Western town. 
Mr. Berry of Stephenville did a banking business in 
Jake Alexander's store. 

Keenly alive to the interests of the town, a comini1> 
tee of citizens went to Waco and offered to the company 
projecting the Texas Central Eailway line through the 
County the sum of $25,000.00 to build through East- 
land. This offer was not accepted and the junction with 
the Texas and Pacific was made at Cisco, ten miles west 
of Eastland. 

Cisco was a precocious youngster, and wanted to be 
the County Town. An election was held August 3, 1881, 
which resulted as follows: Eastland, three hundred 
and fifty-four; Cisco, three hundred and twenty-four. 
The question settled, the Commissioners' Court let a 


contract for the building of a court house at a cost of 
$57,000,000. This three-story building of native stone 
\Yas put up in 1883-84. The original contract price 
made with Lance and McEashen, contractors, was 
$34,998.00, but the Commissioners' Court had to take 
charge of it when half comipleted. 

The County, aided materially by citizens of the town, 
erected prior to this a stone jail on the public square at 
a cost of $5,500.00. The jail was built by Messrs. Mar- 
tin, Byrne and Johnson. 

On Sunday morning at three-thirty o'clock, November 
26, 1896, the court house was discovered to be on fire, 
and was burned to the ground. Hill and Schmick and 
Judge J. T. Hammons lost their libraries and office fur- 
niture. Judge Calhoun, who officed in the building, 
saved his library. The County's loss was $50,000.00, 
with $30,000.00 insurance. 

Two months later, on January 26, the question of 
moving the County Town to Cisco was again voted upon. 
Although Cisco offered to donate the land and erect the 
building free of cost to the County, she failed to secure 
the necessary two-thirds vote to remove the town to a 
point outside of a five-mile radius from the center of 
the County. The vote stood : Cisco, nine hundred and 
forty; Eastland, five hundred and fifty- three; Carbon, 
three hundred and fifty-five; Center of the County, six- 
teen; Curtis, one, and Dustic one. 

The contracts for a new court house and jail were let 
at once. John White of Vernon, Texas, agreed to put 
up a three-story fire proof building for $49,000.00. 
The extras, including fence, furniture, etc., made the 



house cost, ,when completed, $58,000.00. The fire proof 
jail was built by J. A. White of Houston, for $10,000.00, 
and furnished at a cost of $3,000.00. 

Eastland has thus grown from, a one-roomed cabin 
in the woods to a substajitial town — the capital of one 
of the best counties in the State. It has an excellent 
graded public school system, with an enrollment of three 


hundred pupils, a commodious two-story building and 
emiploys a Superintendent and four assistants. Three 
churches — ^the Baptist, .Methodist and Christian — have 
organizations and buildings. 

In this town are several organized bodies: A pro- 
gressive Business Mjen's Association: a Woman's Lit- 
erary Club — the Hawthorne — which founded and has 
charge of the Public Library; and Masonic, Odd Fellow, 
and Woodmen's Lodges. There are to be found here 


three resident ministers, eleven lawyers, three doctors, 
three dry goods establishments, four groceries, three 
drug stores, two hardware and implement houses, one 
bank, two livery stables, one wagon yard, three hotels, 
two restaurants, two boarding houses, two barber shops, 
two meat markets, one furniture store, two gins, a tele- 
phone exchange with long distance connections, two 
blacksmith shops, and two lumber yards. The town 
is incorporated for municipal purposes, the tax being 
only one-fourth of one per cent, and contains one thou- 
sand inhabitants. 

The second National Bink established in the county 
opened its doors for business in the Autumn of 1890 
with Major W. H. Parvin, now deceased. President, and 
John T. Yeargin, Cashier. 

Eastland County Confederate Association. — One of 
the leading features of the historical, social and benevo- 
lent interests of Eastland County is the organization 
of this unchartered body. Its purposes have been so 
thoroughly and uniformly adhered to, and so pleasant 
and conunendable that interest in its annual reunions 

At the suggestion of our well beloved comrade, Dr. 
S. H. Stout, who new sleeps in an honored soldier's 
grave, a preliminary meeting was held in County Clerk 
John T. Yeargin's office, February 8, 1886. The Con- 
federates present were Dr. S. H. Stout, Colonel George 
W. Shannon, John T. Yeargin, W. H. Day, Henry Hal- 
lum, J. T. Hammonds. C. R. Johnson, Captain J. L. 
Steele, and June Kimble. A committee consisting of 
Messrs, Hardeman, Yeargin and Kimlble was appointed 


1.0 draft a constitution and by-laws, and a call made for 
a meeting, April 8, 1886. 

The call was responded to by more than one hundred 
gallant old Confederates who braved a storm for the 
privilege of placing their names upon this roll of honor, 
which yet remains intact. The following officers were 
elected: Dt. S. H. Stout, President; Colonel George 
Shannon, Vice President; June Kimble, Secretary; 
John T. Yeargin, Treasurer, and the Rev. Jack Mc- 
Clure, Chaplain. 

There are four hundred and ninety-three names 
on the roll. Those who have passed over the river, and 
those who have moved to other localities are so en- 
tered, making it a true record. 

The annual reunions of this organization, which 
long since became an institiition of the, County, have 
brought our people together for seventeen years, the 
delightful gatherings numbering from three to five 
thousand veterans, wives. Sons and Daughters, and 

The constitution declares the object of this Asso- 
ciation to be "historical, social, and benevolent." The 
organization owns in fee simple a beautiful and con- 
venient plot of ground, located one-half mile north of 
the court house, consisting of five and one-half acres, 
upon which it purposes to build a capacious tabernacle. 
When the building is completed it vill pass into the 
hands of the Sons and Daughters, who will doubtless 
receive it as a sacred trust committed to them by their 




Mr. Daugherty, the father of Eastland City, was 
born in Missouri, August 25, 1849, and educated at 
Lexington University, Kentucky. 

He came to Dallas in 1873, and soon became in- 


terested in a real estate business, and in the founding 
of Eastland City. He was the author of the Business 
League in thie United States. 

On his motion, the Dallas Board of Trade created 
a committee on Public Interests in 1882. Under this 
committee, of which ho was Chairman, three railroads, 
the Galveston News as Morning News, and the head- 
quarters of the T. & P. and M. K. & T. Ey. Companies 
were brought into Dallas; the Fair was organized and 
the Opera House and Merchants' Exchange Buildings 
were built. Other prominent cities, Denver, Kansas 
City, etc., organized Business Leagues. 

In 1882 Mr. Daugherty was elected President of 
the Eeal Estate Men's Association of Texas; in 1889 
he was elected Chairman of the State Immigration As- 
sociation, in J892 he was appoiirted to represent Texas 
in the "Good Eoads" Committee of the United States, 
and many of its policies and principles were formed 
by him. 

He was unanimously chosen by the Trans-Mississippi 
Commercial Congress at Denver to prepare an address 
to the people of the United States on the silver ques- 
tion. Eichard P. Bland, then in Congress, adopted 
this address as part of his argument on this question, 
and it was printed in the Congressional Eecord. 

Mr. Daugherty, who now resides in Houston, is still 
a successful dealer in real estate. 



HON. C. U. CONNELLEE, Eastland 

C. U. Connellee was born and reared among the pic- 
turesque hills of Eagle Creek in Scott County, Ken' 
tucky, and was educated in the A. & M. Pepartnipjit of 
the University at Lexington. He came to Texaj in 
1874, located in Dallas, and engaged in the real esiate 
business and in the location of land certificates. 


In March, 1875, he married Miss Mattie Payne, of 
'Jhampaign County, Ilhnois, and came with her direct 
to Eastland City, where he has ever since made his home. 

In these ea.Wy days he was Chief Miarshal of all 
the forces worlring for Eastland City and County, the 
general source of information for all prospectors and 
proposing immigrants. Others came and left, C. U. 
Connellee stayed on; when the settler came in wanting 
a quarter section of school land, C. U. Connellee knew 
of one to point out to him. 

In these days of railroads, telegraph wires and tele- 
phone lines, one can scarcely appreciate the difficulty 
of forwarding settlement in a heavily timbered county 
with no means of direct comtaiunication, only wagon 
roads over which to travel, and the nearest railroad 
one hundred and fifty miles away. But under all dif- 
ficulties Mr. Connellee held firm his faith in Eastland 

As frontier agent for Daugherty, Connellee and 
Ammerman he located lands, making frequent trips 
west — even penetrating the Staked Plains for this pur- 
pose, where he encountered Indians a number of times. 

In 1887 he was elected to the State Ijegislature 
from the District comprising the counties of Eastland, 
Stephens and Palo Pinto. As Representative he 
served one term, and was eonnecte'd lyith the enactment 
of several very important laws . 

His present wife was Miss Tullie Folts Hardeman, 
with whom he became acquainted while serving as Eep- 
resentative, and shortly afterwards married. 



J. B. Ammerman was born January 5, 1855, on a 
farm in Harrison County, Kentucky, and educated in 
the public schools, and in the State University at Lexing- 
ton, where he was a room-mate of J. S. Daugherty. 

After leaving school he came to Texas and in the 
Spring of 1875 became associated with Mr. Daugherty 
in the land business at Dallas, Texas, In this position 


he became connected with the early settlpment of East- 
land County-, and in the founding and development of 
Eastland City as the County Town! 

He ^conducted land-locating parties when it was nec- 
essary for every member to be heavily armed, penetrat- 
ing the then trackless plains almost to the New Mexico 

In December, 1880, he was married to Miss Lelia 
Barlow of Bourbon County, Kentucky, and moved from 
Dallas to Eastland City, where he served as the first 
station agent of the Texas and Pacific Railway. After 
leaving the employ of the railroad companjr, he bought 
William Cameron & Company's lumber busines.? at 
Eastland, and also established the first lumber vard at 
Cisco.' Later he engaged iii the stock business and 
liought a ranch s^x miles north of Cisco, which he still 

In 1887 E. M. Hall, State Land Commissioner, ap- 
pointed Mr Ammerman State Surveyor and Classifier, 
and in this capacity he worked for the General Land 
Office of the State of Texas and the Southern Pacific 
Eailroad Company for two years, surveying and classi- 
fying some thousands of sections of land. 

Finishing this work in the Spring of 1890, he has 
since made his home in Cisco, where he- has engaged 
in various business enterprises. At the present time 
he superintends one of the large ginneries in Cisco, in 
which, in addition to his square bale press, he operates 
the pioneer round bale press of the county. 


Scott & Brelsfoed, 

Associated Law Offices, Cisco and Eastland. 

This firm is composed of Judge D. K. Scott, of 
Cisco, and H. P. Brelsford, of Eastland. The firm, as 
at present constituted, was formed in 1893 and has 
been in existence without change since that date. They 
do a general State and Federal Court practice and main- 
tain oflBces at Eastland and Cisco. 

Mr. Scott has been several times County Special 
District Judge. Mr. Brelsford is the present Eepre- 
sentative from the 85th District. He served as Special 
Justice of the Court of Civil Appeals at Fort Worth by 
appointment of Governor Culberson. 


Mir. Hightower established himself in his present 
real estate and abstract business, which is confined en- 
tirely to this county, in 1895. He now has an abstract 
of every title in the county, which are in twenty-four 
bound volumes of abstract books and indexes. 

Mr. Hightower, who came to Texas from Arkansas 
in 1864, located in Stephens County in 1876, where he 
was engaged in the stock business and remained there 
until he came to Cisco in 1883. He was married to Miss 
Callie Alford in the city of Fort Worth, April 24, 1881. 
They have seven children and have lived in Eastland 
City since 1895. 

In the early history of Cisco, Mr. Hightower kept 
books for Park & Paterson and for Blake & Son, 


The Connebs of Eastland County. 

Samuel S. Conner, born June 10, 1821, and his 
wife, Margaretta L. Conner, born November 19, 1830, 
settled in Eastland in 1876. They were from Virginia 
and Kentucky families, and immigrated to Texas from 


their native State, Indiana, in the early iifties, and 
spent the greater part of their subsequent lives in Cald- 
well, Ellis and Eastland Counties. They moved from 
Ellis to Eastland County in the Pall of 1876, and arc 
now lying peacefully side by side in the graveyard 
in the city of Eastland — S. S. Conner having died on the 



11th day of February, 1899, and M. T>. Conner Novem- 
ber 20, 1901. They were both strong characters and 
through the many years" residence in this county be- 
came widely known and universally esteemed, — conspic- 
uous types of that sturdy Christian manhood and 
Vfomanhood that hetve made our nation great. 


As a result of their union, they reared the following 
children, most of whom are now well known: Truman 
H., Maud, Ella, Jennie, Claude L., and Earl. 

The most distinguished member of this noble family 
is the oldest son, Truman H. Conner. He graduated 


in the Law Department of Trinity University, Texas, 
in 1876, and was in the active practice of his profession 
from the spring of 1877 until July, 1887, when he was 
appointed Judge of the 43nd Judicial District, com- 
posed of Eastland and other counties, by Gov. L. S. 
Eoss, and was thrice re-elected to the office. In 1898 
Judge Conner was elected Chief Justice of the 3nd Su- 
preme Judicial District of Texas, composed of ninety- 
five counties, including Eastland. Since the date of his 
present incumbency, he has lived in Fort Worth. 

Mjaud, whose homewasnever inEastland, was married 
to Col. John W. Coleman of Ellis County in 1871, 
and they now live in Coke County, Texas. Ella was 
married to Wm. S. Parson, of Ellis County, in 1873, 
and they lived in Eastland a number of years as many 
old settlers will recall. They have one daughter living 
in the county- -Mrs. Grace Dreinhofer of Ranger. 

Earl Conner is practicing law in Eastland and is 
well known. 

Claude L. Conner is well and favorably known, and 
makes his home at Cisco with his sister Jennie, the wife 
of the present District Judge, J. H. Calhoun. 

All the Conners are and have always been, loyal in 
their devotion to the best interests of the county and 
her people. 








41 ^% 


/ J| 






E. A. HILL, Mayor of Eastland City 

In Tennessee, on July 16, 1865, the subject of this 
sketch was born. Seven years later his father died. 
Having been reared on a farm his education was lim- 
ited to that afforded by the common schools and the 
Dresden High School. 

At the age of eighteen he entered the ofRee of the 
Dresden Enterprise and there served an apprenticeship. 

In 1864 he came to Texas and entered the law office 
of Davenport h,nd Conner as a student, and was ad- 
mitted to the bar June 11. 1885, at the age of twenty- 

Mt. HSU was elected County Attorney in November, 


]8S!8, and ro-clected in 1S90. lie is a good lawyer, has 
a well equipped library and office on the north side of 
the Square, is a ready speaker,. a good story-teller, and 
an excellent entertainer. He is serving his fourth term 
as jMayor of Eastland. 

On December 14, 1892, Mr. Hill was married to 
^liss Bessie, daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Evans. Mrs. 
Hill died in 1894. He was again married on December 
25, 18i!-.>. to the eldest daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. H. 

ilr. Hill enjoys in a marked degree the confidence 
of his fellow townsmen. 

The Eastland Chronicle. 

This creditable weekly Democratic paper is owned, 
edited and published by Frost and Chastain, lawyers, 
and is devoted to "Science, Literature, Religion, Poli- 
tics, and the Upbuilding of Eastland County." 

Judge Frost, son of B. Frost, a minister of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South, was born in Chat- 
tanooga, Tennessee, in 1849. When only eighteen years 
old he engaged in teaching "with little education, but 
by hard study" he familiarized himself with Natural 
Sciences, and with the English, Latin, French and 
Spanish languages. He came to Texas from Illinois in 
1872, and was admitted to the bar to practice law in 

Judge Frost was a member of the 36th Legislature. 

Claude P. Chastain, the junior member of the firm, 
is a native Texan and was educated at Weatherford Col- 

106 HI8T0R r OF EASTLAND 00 UNTt. 

lege (under David W. Switzer), and Baylor University. 
He was admitted to the bar to practice law in 1897, 
after having taught school for five years. 

Mr. Chastain served as a Lieutenant in the Fourth 
Texas Infantry during the Spanish-American war. Hp 
was married to Miss Maude Harrison on September 85, 


the advent of the railroad. 

The Texas and Facieic Railway Company. 

When it became known in Eastland that this great 
East and West line had reached Fort Worth and would 
he built on to El Paso there was great rejoicing in this 
section of the country because of the development and 
conveniences that would result. The settlements that 
followed, the building and maintenance of schools and 
churches, the cheapness of the lands (at that time from 
iifty cents to one dollar an acre), all combined to in- 
crease the population and develop the resources of the 

The Texas and Pacific Railway Company was or- 
ganized under an act of Congress, March 3, 1871, and 
the general Railroad laws of the State of Texas. It 
acquired the properties of the Southern Pacific Railroad 
Company of Texas in 1873, which Company, at that 
date, owned and operated the sixty odd miles of railway 
between Shreveport, Louisiana, and Longview, Texas. 



The Southern Pacific Railroad Company was a consoli- 
dation of the Yicksburg, Shre\i'port and Texas Rail- 
road, (chartered in Louisiana), and the Southern Pa- 
oiiic Railroad, organized under the laws of Texas. 



''i. . . :"'-"•■- 

^aSfigij»^<3u^** '^^^^^^'^^'t4H4AQpS^flSn^H 


The New Orleans Pacific Railroad Company, (or- 
ganized also under the laws of Louisiana), was consoli- 
dated with the Texas and Pacific Railway Company in 
June, 1881. Early in the seventies the Texas and Pa- 
cific also acquired the properties of the Southern Trans- 
continental and The Memphis, El Paso and Pacific 
Railroads, both incorporated under the laws of Texas. 

In those early days, the population of the State was. 
of course, insignificant in numbers as compared with the 


present time, and was confined mainly to the eastern 
and coast counties. West of a line drawn through say, 
rrainesville, Fort Worth, Austin, San Antonio and Cor- 
pus Christi, there was, then, scarcely any white popula- 

The charters granted by the State to the Memphis, 
El Paso and Pacific Eailroad, and to the Southern 
Trans-continental Eailroad, were the results of eiforts 
made by the people of the counties of Bowie, Eed Eiver, 
Ivamar, Fannin, Gravi^on, Cocke and Denton, to secure 
this gi'eat East and Wei;t Eailroad. 

The construction of railroads was in its infancy in 
the early fifties, not alone in Texas, but in all other 

The numerous laws passed by the early Legislatures 
nf Texas, offering bubsidies to induce capital to come 
here and construct railroads, etc.. r'l'-irly evidence that 
the early pioneers and settlers of this goodly country 
duly recognized and appreciated the necessity for artifi- 
cial means of communication and transportation facili- 
ties. This was practically true of Northern and Middle 
Texas on account of the absence of rivers and other 

The building of the great East and West Eailroad 
across the State seemed then of early consummation 
and efforts to secure it created considerable rivalry in 
the counties in the Northern half of Texas. 

These people were particularly strenuous in their ef- 
forts to gain an advantage over the people living on the 
line surveyed to Dallas and Fort Worth, now the main 
line of the Texas and Pacific. As early as 1852, this 


line, known as the Texas Western Eailroad had obtained 
a charter, which later became known as the Southern 
Paciiic, then the Texas and Pacific. 

Little, however, was accomplished in the way of 
extensive construction of any of these lines until that 
master spirit. Colonel Thomas A. Scott, became identi- 


fied ^vith the Texas and Pacific enterprise, which was 
in the year of 1871 — his connection continuing until 
1S81, or nearly up to the time of his death. During 
tlie Scott regime that portion of the road between Tex- 
arkana and Fort Worth, via Sherman, was constructed, 
and from Texarkana to Abilene, via Marshall and 

Mr. Jay Gould acquired control of the properties 


early in 1881, and to him is greatly due the credit for 
the large extensions which were made to Texas and Pa- 
cific properties about that time, to-wit : The extension 
of the line to El Paso, and from Shreveport to New Or- 
leans. More than half of all the mileage of the Texas 
and Pacific was added during the incumbency of Presi- 
dent Jay Gould, and was added (contrary to the idea of 
the general public) without any aid or subsidy, landed 
or otherwise, national or state. 

This railway line extends entirely across Eastland 
County, and has contributed largely to its agricultural 
f.nd commiercial development. 

With a diversity of soil — from sand to rich choco- 
late loam; with an average rainfall ; high hills and their 
rich store of minerals, and the uplands and valleys that 
produce anything agricultural, lands in Eastland have 
increased in value and now sell from $5.00 to $40.00 an 

While the road winds its way along the leading of 
i:he Palo Pinto Creek and bridges the deep gullies that 
feed it, and crawls around the cliffs and hills that 
aboun,d, the traveler, sitting in his comfortable sleeper 
as it glides over the steel rails, looks out and admires 
the rugged scenery with the little patches of valley that 
make the picture more beautiful, but does not know 
over what historic lands and scenes of romantic adven- 
ture he is passing. 

Eastland -is rich in possibilities and offers the man 
seeking a home many advantages. 

Under the present management of Mr. L. S. Thome, 
7ice President and General Manager; Mr. John W. 


Everinaii, Assistant General Manager; E. L. Sargent, 
General Freight Agent, and Mr. E. P. Turner, General 
Passenger and Ticket Agent, and its etficient corps of 
Superintendents, the "Old Reliable" has grown in popu- 
larity and to-day stands without a peer in the State. 

Mr. J. W. Ward is Superintendent of the Eio Grande 
Division — Fort Worth to El Paso — with headquarters 
at Big Springs. 

The Passenger Conductors, Fort Worth to Big 
Springs, are Messrs. McCleod, Bogart, Tobin, Cole and 
Smith; Engineers, Messrs, Foy, Baker, Craig, Dean and 

The Texas Central Railway 

Made its entry into Cisco, May 80, 1881, and has 
been a very great factor in the agricultural and com- 
mercial development of +he County. 

In 1866 or 1867, the *Hoiiston and Texas Central 
Railway Company, which formerly controlled the Texas 
Central, sent out Captain William Armstrong to locate 
all public lands still unsurveyed. In this way Eastland 
was sectionized, that is, the land was surveyed and cut 
up into sections of six hundred and forty acres each. 

When the road was disposed of to the present owners 
it was ia a most deplorable condition — -a mixed train 
ran every other day being the only passenger service. 
Shortly after the present management assumed control, 

*The State of Texas gave this company sixteen sections 
of land for every mile of railroad it built between Hous- 
ton and Denison. 

























in the person of Colonel Charles Hamilton as Vice Pres- 
ident and G-eneral Manager, and W. F. MbMillan as Gen- 
eral Passenger and Freight Agent, daily passenger trains 
were put on and the interests of the line began to 

When the Texas Central was built through Eastland, 
lands along its route "that could hardly be given away, 
are now worth fronx $20.00 to $40.00 an acre." This 
is due to the discovery that in the sandy loam district — 
which includes fully one-half of the County— there is a 
clay subsoil Mhich holds the water. * 

About four years ago the travel on the road had so 
increased that double daily trains were put on from 
Waco to Dublin and in a few months this service was 
extended to Cisco. 

Many signs of improvement evidence the prosperity 
and popularity of the road. The wooden bridges across 
gullies and creeks, which gave two bridge gangs constant 
employment from frequent replacing of timbers, have 
been replaced by cemented stone structures, and only one 
carpenter crew is required. A little <;urve in Steele's 
Creek, between Morgan and Fowler, was cut out liter- 
ally, expense and all, by building a new track around 
the curve. Carefulness and keen oversight seem to be 
Colonel Hamilton's watchwords. 

Is'ot the least thing this management has done is the 

*It is a well-known fact that sand, though not able of 
itself alone to hold moisture very lond, parts readily with 
what it has and makes vegetation welcome to almost every 
drop it contains. Other soils, though capable of retaining 
moisture, are chary of giving it to the roots that forage 
for it. 


system of smiall parks and spots of green it maintains 
about its depots all along the line. The Company knows 
Ihe invcslnunt is a tiood one, and keeps up the improve- 
ments, although it is repeatedly rumored that different 
roads want the property and would secure it if they 

In the early days a joint ticket agent served the two 
roads at Cisco. Mr. George Langston, present station 
agent of the Texas and Pacific, and who filled the same 
position at that time, served as first, and only, Joint 
agent. The present agent is Mr. Bulbrook, Sam Green - 
hill, cashier, and Mr. Brown, operator. 

Superintendent Ramsey Cox maintains headquarters 
at Waco. The passenger conductors are TMessrs, Holt. 
Hawkins, Hooper and Webster; Engineers, Bcttis. Wig- 
gins, TJloth, Myers and Cottrell. 


PERIOD III-1881-1904 

growth and prooress. 

In 1S79 (?). when there were not more than half 
a dozen families in this locality, Reverend C. G. Stevens 
established a postoffice at a passway in the hills, one 
mile west of town, and called it Red Gap. A floorless log 
school house, with one small window was built, and Mrs. 
Colistie Green taught school. One half mile west of Red 
Gap Postoffice, W. T. Caldwell had a store in which he 
kept dry goods and groceries. 

In 1880 the Texas and Pacific Railway pushed its 
line on westward through Eastland County, but Red Gap 
continued its existence, the railroad locating its depot 
at Delmar. It was expected, however, that when the 
Texas Central reached the Texas and. Pacific a town 
would be located at the crossing of the roads. Each day, 
as the iron rails led nearer and nearer to this point of 
crossing, saw new tents stretched, new covered wagons 
taking their stand, and new faces in the rapidly growing 
town which was called Red Gap. With the Texas Cen- 
tral within one mile of the junction, and the Texas and 
Pacific only a short distance west, many laborers and 
their families helped to swell the number of inhabitants, 
which now reached six hundred. Accommodating them- 
selves to the only expression where it was supposed the 
new town would be located, which was a wagon road 


running east and west, the poople had '"'squatted" on 
either side of this thoroughfare. In thi.s wbito town 
were two or more stores of general merchandise, two or 
three grocery stores, a number of restr.urants, doctors" 
(,;f ees, and Mrs. Haws' hotel, which stood about the mid- 
dle of Broadway, between the Daniels and Broadwoll 
homes. Dr. Vance, who arrived in Cisco April 1, 188], 
officed in the hotel group of tents. 

Major Bob Elgin of Houston, who had charge of the 
i.and Department of the Houston and Texas Central 
Railway, assisted by Mr. Metzo, an engineer, with T. E. 
Johnson as chain bearer, laid off the town. A platform 
was put up where Mayhew & Company's feed store now 
stands, and Major Elgin (who is a brother-in-law of 
N. E. Wilson and lives in Houston), stood there for two 
days and cried the lots. Mr. White secured the *fLrsL 
lot, paying $175.00 for it, and selected from the hugo 
map of the town Major Elgin had at hand, the one now 
occupied by Cooper's livery stable. 

As soon as the town was located and laid off, the 
inhabitants aeeomm'odated themselves to the permanent 
arrangement and shifted to the most desirable positions 
attainable and profitable to their business. 

Among the business firms in the town at that timie 
were W. A. Stevens, general merchandise, who put up 
the first store building); James Caldwell, Campbell 
Bros., Adams & Sons, Miller & Wike, Porter (Will) & 
Park, (who bought out Amtaierman's yard) and Camer- 

*Mr. R. G-. Luse is the authority for the above statement. 
I. Lamb thinks the first lot fell to Adams & Son, and was 
the one now occupied by Mayhew & Co.'s warehouse, the 
town being first built facing the Texas Central railroad. 





on & Company, himber, 'J'aylor & Bedford (for whom 
Yi'illiam (Taultney, now bankci', clerked), John "Bice and 
Yarbrough & ^Martin, druggists.* The front of a lit- 
tle ten by twelve box store was given a coat of red paint, 
rud the always and still popular "Eed Front Drug 
Siore" came into existence. 

Mrs. Haws began the building of her hotel, which 
was blown down in a furious gale but immediately re- 
placed before the sale of lots, and managed the same 
until her death in 1S90. The llajerta, standing near 
where Hall's wagan yard is, was kept by Mr. Hoddinger. 
ilr. W. D. Chandler had a boarding house where the 
Broadway now stands, and Mrs. Parker kept private 

Shortly before the sale of lots took place a large 
number of Jlillet's cowboys came into town and created 
great consternation am'ong the tent dwellers, as they 
exercised great freedom, in the use of their pistols, so 
much so, in fact, that the constables of both Cisco and 
Eastland City, together with the men summoned to as- 
sist, were all night long (insomef safe place) devising 
means for their capture. They made two arrests next 
day, and this is no reflection on the courage of Constable 
.4.1ejc Simerl, either. 

The first bill of lumber sold in Cisco was to Hor- 
ace Donaldson, who built the first residence on the lot 
now occupied by Moody's blacksmith shop. About the 

*Dr. Vance and Dr. McNeil witnessed the contract be- 
tween the members of this last firm, Yarbrough furnishing 
the means, and Martin the brains and time. 

t Authority, I. Lamb. 


oame time W. D. Chandler, T. M. Taylor, W. A. Stevens 
and others were building homes, and J. K. Miller, Ed 
Bppler, I. Lamb, B. F. James & Son, and Mir. McCor- 
mick were the carpenters. 

Some of the names of those who were here in 1881, 
not mentioned above, follow: 

John F. Patterson, R. G. Luse, Charley Parks, Seth 
Eamsey (now of Cottonwood), David Redfield of Ard- 
mlore. Judge Flemiraing of Seattle, Henry Hilliard of 
St. Louis, J. B. Luse and wife. Major Preveaux and wife 
and sister (Mrs. R. G. Luse), J. Alexander and wife, 
Mr. Turknette, W. A. Rhoads, Captain Whiteside, R. B. 
Vaughn, T. J. Worthington, W. J. Walker, Hugh Corri- 
gan, Frank and Lee Jordan, Dr. Mancill, J. T. Yeargin, 
J. E. P. Chapman (who built the old Bunnell resi- 
dence), J. W. Smith and wife, Nat Noel, Ed Morehead, 
Traveling Auditor Perry of the Texas Central, John 
Collins, G. W. Graves, T. E. Larimer, W. M. Freeman 
of Dallas, J. R. and K. S. Fisher, John Gude, M. B. 
Owen, who lost his life in the cyclone of 1893, J. J. 
Wallace, B. L Patp, Mr. Bunnell and family. Corner 
Vvilliams, and Miles and Quitman Eppler, George 
Daniels and W^. A. Gnde.* 

A sixteen by twenty school house was put up 
free of charge by B. F. James and Sons and J. K. Mil- 
ler. In this building a Baptist minister, J. C. Finnell, 
taught a day school. Here, also, a union Sunday school 
was conducted. Mr. Chaffin, a contractor on the Texas 
Central Railroad, was the Superintendent. At the 

'These names were furnished by Dr. Vance, W. D. Chan- 
dler, I. Lamb and R. G. Luse. 


weekly prayer meeting every Wednesday night, which 
was attended by all denominations, there was frequently 
not standing room, "many being turned away." This 
school house was used for church purposes until the 
different denominations erected their own buildings. 
From time to time additions were made to the 16x20 
school building, until it grew to be about sixteen by one 
hundred and was known as the "long school house." 

]\Ir. Frank Kynette, assisted by Mss Sallie Greer, 
■now ]Mts. Eecd, were succeeded by Dr. Stout, who did so 
much for the school and town. Dr. Stout might prop- 
erly be called the introducer and founder of the Public 
Schools of Cisco. He came here when educational in- 
terest was chaotic in condition, and being a of deep 
learning he proved himself a Joshua, leading his people 
into a promised land that has since blossomed and 
fruited many times. 

Judge Flenuning, aided and encouraged by Dr. 
Stout, worked for a special tax for the enlarging of the 
school house and the incorporation of the school dis- 
trict, which at that time included four sections of land ! 
He lived in the town long enough to see his desire ac- 
complished. Hugh Horrigan was a warm supporter of 
this measure. 

G. W. Graves was first Mayor of the town and Ed 
Campbell, Constable. 

The first graduating class was Burette Patterson. 
Mnmie Blake, Eva Winston and Laura Eichardson. 
This was in 1888 while Charles T. Alexander was Su- 

As the Texas and Pacific pushed farther westward 


inland mail routes were changed. It is interesting to 
note the difference in conditions and times twenty years 
ago and now. The Government now pays from' $600 
to $700 for the mails to be carried from Cisco to Eising 
Star. In 1882 it paid W. E. Chandler $2400.00 an- 
nually for carrying the mail from Cisco to Brown- 
wood. There was no road. W. W. Smith and Jim 
Tyson cut one through and the stage, which held fron. 
six to eight passengers, began its daily run each way 
(except Sundays). The first stand was at H. Mer- 
rilFs, the second at Uncle T'omauy Anderson's,- where 
the richly promising town of Kising Star is now lo- 
cated, and the third at Clio, thirteen and one-half miles 
north of Brownwood. The horses were changed at each 

Travel and express being heavy, the coaches would 
frequently be over full, and extra hacks would be pu; 
on, the lines sometimes clearing $100.00 per day. 
Drivers were paid $30.00 per month and board. Mr. 
Chandler kept two stables, one at DteLeon and one at 
Cisco. Fifty-five horses were used, twenty on the 
'Rrownwood line. 

During the four years Mr. Chandler held the con- 
tract the stage was robbed several times. At last, people 
demanded that an officer go along. A Deputy Sheriff 
at Brownwood accordingly climbed up on the seat ny 
t)]e driver. After having left Mr. Merrill's a couple 
of miles behind, he saw a man coming toward them. 
The Sheriff held his pistol cocked under the la probe, 
but coming nearer and seeing that the man was a mere 
slip of a boy, he let the hammer down. When the care- 


loss, kind-looking boy,, was even with the driver, he cov- 
ered the men with his pistol and ordered "hands up." 
The bewildered SheriiJ, however, presented his gun in 
siead, and several shots were exchanged, as the frightened 
horses broke into a wild run. Mts. Bryan's trunk on 
the back of the stage had four bullet holes in it, and 
probably saved the lives of the passengers. Dave Kick- 
man was the driver on that trip. 

Life in the new town was gay from sunrise to sun- 
rise, but gradually the fever heat passed away and the 
people began to grow accustomed to each other and to 
the conditions and assumed a more substantial attitude. 

Cisco has never been a dead town, but has had sea- 
sons of "excitement." Twice has a *coal mine been 
worked rather extensively within three miles of D Ave- 
nue. Property has always beeji held at good figures. 
Its two railroads and eight daily trains easily give it a 
commercial standing superior to any other in the county. 

The first National Bank organized in the County 
was located at Cisco. J. H. "Ffalcomb, President; P. C. 
LeVeaux, Cashier. Directors: J. J. Winston, C. H. 
Pee, J. P. Patterson, A. B. Smith. 

On April 28, 1893, Cisco was swept liy a cyclone 
that left but few houses wholly intact. At the time 
there were only three storm houses in the town, and 
the people were unprepared and unwatchful. The awful 

*As an evidence that coal does actually exist in paying 
quantities in this locality, the fact is cited thait these mines 
have been extensively worked. Twice have two or three 
hundred miners been employed. The mines have never been 
abandoned because the supply of coal was exhausted, but for 
lack of funds. 


storm came down upon them in all its resistless fury — 
tearing, ripping and making havoe of homes. It dashed 
and hurled man and beast, houses and trees and fences 
in its mad rage, as it tore its way through the heart of 
the town, leaving in its terrbile wreckage twenty-eight 
dead and dying bodies for the glorious moon, which 
came out immediately, to cast its pure light upon and 
dispel the darkness. For months the debris lay in 
the streets and on the corners, so entirely was the town 
wrecked. To-day, however, there is no sign of the tor- 
nado except the stunted tops of the hardy oaks which 
still mark its path, while the residences are more mod- 
ern and the business houses are of brick or stone. 

There are five churches — Baptist, Presbyterian, 
Christian, and Northern and Southern Methodist; the 
Tdasonic Lodge, the chapter of Eoyal Arch Masons, and 
the Masonic Lodge of the Eight of Adoption, who own 
a large corner building; the Independent Order of Odd 
Fellows and Rebekah Lodge, who are arranging to pul 
up a building; the Knightc' of Pythias, the Woodmen of 
the World, the Civic Improvement League, the XX Cen- 
tury and the Young Ladies' Departmental Clubs 
(both literary), the J. U. G. (young ladies' social club), 
nnd the W. C. T. U.; the active Ladies' Societies, Sun- 
day Schools, Senior and Junior Epworth Leagues and 
Endeavor Societies in all the churches; and the Country 
Club, Park, and Cemetery Associations make an aggre- 
gate of concentrated energy along all lines of physical, 
mental and moral development. 

Perhaps the one thing in which Cisco, as a town, 
ig most interested is The Public Library, founded by 


Mr. Frank Vernon, in 1894, with one volume, Ben Hur, 
viiich he purchased. The town responded then to the 
call, many books being sent in at once. Shortly after 
this Mir. Vernon wrote Mr. Carnegie for a contribution 
f.nd secured $250.00. 

When it contained four hundred volumes, the 
founder, whose health had failed, turned the library 
over to the XX Century Club as a precious legacy, be- 
Ciueathing with the books all his love and energy for the 
enterprise. Right well have the ladies kept the trust, for 
it now contains one thousand volumes, has a furnished 
room, and a paid librarian. 

The one thing lying closest to the hearts of the mem- 
I'prs of the XX Century Club is a Public Library Build- 
ing, for which they have a gradually growing fund. The 
Young Ladies' Departmental Club, also working for 
the building, has a bank account for the same purpose. 
It is hoped that the town and the railway companies will 
join in the near future in the City Park and erect a 
handsome structure that shall be known as the Cisco 
Union Depot and Public Library Building. 

The Cisco Cemeteby Association was organized 
March 15, 1899, with ten active and a number of asso- 
ciate members. Mrs. J. D. Alexander was elected Presi- 
dent; Mrs. C. S. Vance, Vice President; Mrs. M. T. 
\^.Tiiteside, Secretary; L. E Brannin, Treasurer. 

A charter was applied for and granted, and the mem- 
bers went to work at once to raise funds to enclose the 
grounds. This and much more has been accomplished. 
JSTot only has a substantial fence been placed around 
the grounds, but a handsome iron gate swings on huge 


stone posts that were contributed by the owners of the 
lieuders Quarry, and their transportation given by the 
accommodating officials of the Texas Central Railwaj 
Company. The caps were contributed by Messrs. Ay- 
coek & Allen, of Cisco. All unknown graves have been 
marked with head and foot boards. Two hundred and 
fifty shade trees have been planted, and last year twenty- 
seven hundred and fifty feet of pipe were laid for water 

Through the efforts of Mrs. Alexander a tract of 
land contiguous to the Cemetery grounds was deeded 
by the Texas Central Eailway Company to the Associa- 
tion for a park, and many trees, evergreens and flow- 
ers have been planted under the supervision of the Tree 
Committee. The finances are reimbursed, when neces- 
sary, by a most efficient Soliciting Committee. In fact 
the work accomplished in the short length of time is 
unparalleled. The present officers are Mrs. J. D. Alex- 
ander, President; Mrs. C. S. Vance, Vice President; Mr?;. 
J. H. Holcomb, Second Vice President; Mrs. Augusta 
Mason, Secretary; L. E. Brannin, Treasurer. Trustees: 
L. E. Brannin, C. S. Williams, J. J. Winston. J. Alex- 
ander, Mars. M. T. Whiteside. 

Under the efficient management of these excellent 
officers the work will progress until the Cisco Cemetery 
will stand abreast of any. 

Eebekah Odd Fellowship is to-day a great order: 
symbolizing in itself strength, unity and sympathy, and 
the desire to help that has made woman such a factor 
in the organization. And this spirit, which gives force 
to the principles of Friendship, Love and Truth, biiid 


together more than two hundred lives in Eastland Coun- 
ty for the purpose of correcting the besetting sin of self- 
ishness and for moral betterment of mankind. 

The Qiood AVill Eebekah Lodge, No. 103, of Cisco, 
was instituted by Mrs. Cynthia A. Brown, February 37, 
1892, with ten charter members. To-day there are four 
Eebekah Lodges in the county — Cisco, Rising Star, Gor- 
man and Eanger — with a membership of over two hun- 
dred members. 

Eebekah Odd Fellowship simply means making the 
very best of life "I count this thing to be grandly 
■rue. That a noble deed is a step toward God." 

The material for the above was furnished by Miss 
ilice Eddleman, Past Noble Grand of the Good Will 
Eebekah Lodge, No. 102, Cisco, Texas. 

Odd Fellowship, as a fraternity, stands without a 
peer in number of members, wealth and activities for 
good. Its Grand Jurisdictions, Subordinate Lodges, 
Grand Encampments and Eebekah Lodges girdle the 
whole earth. 

Eastland County is blessed with six Subordinate 
Lodges with a membership of over three hundred in 
line, located at Cisco, Eastland, Eanger, Carbon, Gor- 
man and Eising Star, which are working gloriously for 
Friendship, Love and Truth, the grand pillars on which 
our order stands for the uplifting of hunmanity. * 

Cisco is a progressive and up-to-date town, with a 
population of three thousand people. It has an altitude 

*These paragraphs on Odd Fellowship were furnished 
by Rev. W. A. Mason, a pioneer Texan, and Past Grand 
Chaplain, now residing in Cisco. 


of nearly seventeen hundred feet. It is lighted with 
electricity, has a good system of waterworks, a local and 
long distance telephone system, two newspapers, two 
whoksale grocery houses, two railroads, an oil mill, a 
compress, three drug stores, two gins, two mills, an ice 
plant, bottling works, steam laundry, a fire department, 
silver cornet band, one tailoring establishmient, two 
hanks, one exclusive shoe store, one jewelry store, three 
hotels, seven dry goods houses, two exclusive millinery 
establishments, ten groceries, four hardware, three res- 
taurants, three blacksmith shops, three wagon yards, 
two meat markets, a second-hand store, confectionery 
and chili shops. 

The history of the business interests that follow, to- 
gether with the accompanying illustrations, fairly rep- 
resent the town as it is to-day, although one or two 
large concerns are not included. The following is al- 
most a complete list of the business firms : 

The Cisco Oil Mill. 

Burton-Lingo Lumber Company. 

Aycock & Shipman, Marble Works. 

Hotel Hartman, N. E. Wilson, Proprietor. 

J. W. Hartman & Son, Grocers. 

Merchants' and Farmers' Bank, W. C. Bedford, 

Seldomridge Bros., Tailors. 

St. John & Moore, Drugs. 

C. H. Pee & Company, Hardware and Imlplements. 

Davis-Garner Company, Dry Goods. 

Garner-Switzer, Groceries. 

Mrs. J. D. Alexander, Millinery. 


Citizens' Xational Banlv, A. H. Johnson, Cashier. 

Hall & Taylor, General Merchandise. 

G. B. Kelley & Co., Dry Goods. 

J. J. Martin & Co., Drugs. 

E. M. Brown, Exclusive Shoe Dealer. 

George D. Pee & Company, Dry Goods and Gro- 

Lizenbee & Littlepage, New and Second-Hand 
Goods. ' t 

S. 0. Dove, Blacksmith and General Kepair Work. 

T. J. Clark, Chili Stand. 

C. H. Kinsey, Staple and Fancy Groceries. 

J. H. Erwin, Hardware, Implements and Machinery. 

W. L. Williams, Confectioner. 

T. J. Worthington, Furniture. 

Ammerman & Harris, Meat Market. 

Willie Walker's' Barber Shop. 

Slater's Cliop House and Bakery. 

J. W. Smith, 'Hardware. 

J. J. Winston, Groceries. ij^,, 

Webster, Hill & Baker, Wholesale Grocers. 

M. T. Jones Lumber Company. 

Cooper's Livery Stable. 

J. M. Eadford, Wholesale Grocer. 

Arlington Heights Hotel, C._M. Pilcher, Proprietor. 

Eppler & Eussell, Blacksm*1;hs. ► *'" 

Mayhew & Company, Hardware, Implements and 

Ward & Company, General Merchandise. 

B. E. Kean, Dry Goods. 

Dingle & DeSpain, Druggists. 



The Texas iDunigration Land Company. 

Maneill Brothers Hardware Company. 

A. Owen, Dentist. 

Mrs. F. Vernon, Insurance. 

Collie Brothers, Printers. 

Mr. Frank Vernon. 

'i'he subject of this sketch, now deceased, was a most 
prominent factor in the development of the town from 
the time he came in 1891, as editor of the Bound-Up, 
■until his departure for a climate that would help him 
\o hold the life fast ebbing away. 

' Having made Journalism a life study, he published 
a crisp, newsy Democratic weekly paper, and became fa- 
virably known throughout the State in editorial circles. 

He was a prominent member of the Texas Press As- 
sodation, serving twice as its Secretary, and he was also 
afl^ated with the National Editorial Association. 

There are several enterprises in Cisco as evidences of 
his energy and capabilities, the most distinguished -of 
whiih is the Public Library, the most practical the 
telemone exchange and first long distance system in 
the County. 

SWce he went to his reward, his wife, who has lived 
here Trith their three children, and his mother, has done 
an inairance business, which is steadily growing. Mrs. 
Vemoi is one of four women in the State who handles 



The Burtox-Lingo Company, 

Being a branch yard of the well-known Burton- 
Lingo Lumber Company cf Fort Worth, has been located 
in Cisco for the past five years. 

They carry a large supply of everything in the build- 
ing line, and having their own mills are enabled to meet 
all competition. This company also carries the most 
complete and best grade of lumber in West Texas. 

Mr. J. T. Berry is local manager. 

.1. W. Haetmajj & Son. 

Wholesale and retail grocers. Established 188.^. 

WTien Cisco was a verv new town Mr. Hartman first 
became a citizen and has always identified himself with 
every forward move. During the twenty years he has 
resided in the town, he has been engaged in the grocery 

In the handsomje block is situated 
the Hotel Haftinan, and the bt;ilding where- the above 
firm retails gi'oceries. 

Mr. Hartman's home life is complete with a wife 
and three children — two daughters, and a son who is in- 
terested in the business with his father. One daughter 
is married and lives in Cisco. The other, the pet of the 
household, is still in school. 



C. H. Fee & Co. 

The hardware, furniture and implement house of 
C. H. Fe.e & Co. stands without a peer in the County. 

In August, 1883, Mr. Pee located in Cisco and es- 
tablished the business which has grown to such magni- 
tiide as to require the use of three large buildings. 

Mr. Fee was born in Oxford, Mississippi, and edu- 
cated at the State University located there. He is of 
Scotch-Irish descent and conies of a high-toned and 
godly ancestry. He has l)een an important factor in 
the development of Cisco, and has been identified with 
every enterprise for the advancement of its interests. 

Mr. H. C. Eominger, who has been a resident of the 
town for many years, is a member of this popular fin \. 

The Texas Immigration Bueeau 

Has been organized to help build up Texas, and espe- 
cially the counties of Eastland, Shackelford, Stephens 
aud Young. The object of the Bureau is to induce peo- 
ple living in the Northern Slates to move to Texas— an 
empire within itself. 

A man is kept continually on the road looking up 
people who wish to locate in this great State. The fol- 
lowing agents represent the company: 

H. B. Faris, Breckenridge, Stephens County. 

Webb & Htill and Matthews & Blanton, Albany, 
Shackelford County. 

Judge R. F. Arnold, Graham, Young County. 

H. L. Winchell, who is Vice President and General 
Manager of the organization, maintains headquarters at 





Cisco, and is ntiint for tliis County, lite also makes loans 
and writes insurance. 

The officers of the Bureau are : 

H. F. Faris, Clinton, Mo., President. 

H. L. Winchell, Cisco, Vice President and General 

F. J. Faris, Cisco, Secretary and Treasurer. 

W. M. G-odwin, Clinton, Mo., Traveling Commis- 

This organization will not only help build up .Bast- 
land and these other counties, but the town of Cisgo, 
being headquarters, will be greatly benefitted. 

Cotton Seed Oil Mill. 

This plant was established in 1896 by Eeynolds 
"Brother^ with a capital stock of $100,000.00. William 
D. Eeynolds, President; George T. Eeynoldsj Vice 
President; D. C. Campbell, Secretary and Treasurer; P. 
W. Eeynolds, Egsident Manager. 

All the product of the mill, except the oil, is utilized 
in the feeding of three to five thousand cattle each sea^ 

The men representing this business were pioneer 
settlers of Stephens County and have had hair-breadth 
escapes in many an Indian raid. Mr. George Eeynolds, 
who now lives in Fort Worth, has a silver bridle that 
once belonged to an Indian Chief whom he killed in 
battle, and who gave him an arrow-head in memory of 
the occasion, which he wore embedded in the mniscles of 
his back for more than seventeen years. 



The Arlingtok Heights Hotel. 

This hotel is situated on the hill, and hence justifies 
Ml-. Pileher's claim that it is "Sixty feet nearer heaven 
than any other in the city." 

From the accompanying cut one observes that there 
is a home-like look about the place. , 

Some of the prerogatives of this hotel are the "family 
style of serving meals, the home-made butter and milk, 
the biscuits like mother used to make, and the large, 
shady yard." 

Mr. Pilcher is a member of the Sovereign W. 0. W. 
Cisco Camp, No. 500, and has served the town several 
times as Marshal. 

Citizens^ National Bank. 

President, Dr. J. P. AVebster; Vice President, J. J. 
Butts; Cashier, A. H. Johnson; Assistant Cashier, M. S. 
Stamps. Directors: J. P- Webster, J. J. Butts, J. J. 
Winston, A. L. Ma,yhew, A. H. Johnson and W. D. 

This institution, organized in February, 1902, the 
only National bank in the county, is strictly a home en- 
terprise, those who are interested being identified with 
Cisco and Eastland County. 

The business, which is constantly growing, has been 
from the first both satisfactory and profitable to the 

The managem'ent of the Citizens' National Bank is 
always conservative. 


history of eastland county. 147 

The Merchants' and Faemeks' Bank 

Was established in 1898 by iW. H. Eddleman and 
opened ready for business on March 16th, with \W. C. 
Bedford as Cashier, and W. J. Eddleman as Assistant 

Through the careful management of Mr. Bedford 
and his able assistant the bank has been a paying insti- 
tution from the beginning, growing steadily from year 
to year, and is to-day the largest banking interest in the 

Mr. W. C. Bedford, who was born in G-eorgia, and 
reared in Alabama, came to Texas in 1876. With the 
exception of five years spent in successful mining opera- 
tions in Arizona, he has been continuously in Eastland 
County, having twice served the County as Clerk, 1890- 

W. J. Eddleman was born, reared and educated in 
Weatherford, Texas, and has had exceptional advantages 
in learning the banking business. He is the only son 
of M!r. and Mrs. W. J. Eddlem'an. 

Mr. Wesley Tebbs is the efficient Collector of this 

President, W. H. Eddlenoan; Vice President, George 
P. Levy; Cashier, W. C, Bedford; Assistant C£tsJ}ier^ 
W. J. Eddleman. 

Davis-Gaener Company, 

Nineteen years ago the senior partner of the above 
firm came to Cisco. An indomitable energy and a de- 
termination to succeed were his only capital. He em- 
barked in the dry goods business with Col. J. H, Hoi- 


comb, buying an entire half interest on a credit. In 
1893 he bought out his partner and was sole owner of 
the business until March, 1903, when he sold a half in- 
terest to J. H. Garner. 

Mr. Davis is "All the way from Pike," (having been 
bom in Pike County, Missouri, 48 years ago). He was 
reared on a farm and received his education in subscrip- 
tion schools and in William Jewell College. In 1875 he 
came to Texas, crossing Red Eiver the day he was 

Mr. Davis is a Missionary Baptist, believes in and 
supports church work and charitable institutions. His 
family consists of one good wife and four children. 

Mr. Garner, the junior partner, is a young man and 
has been remarkably successful in business. He was 
just out of Howard College, Tennessee, when he came 
to Texas eight years ago. It is no less his own 
personality than his push and energy that has greatly 
increased the business of the firm since he became a 
member. He is a working member of the Methodist 
church. His wife is a daughter of Rev. S. W. Turncf. 

This firm is a success in every sense of the word, due 
largely to the fact that it pays cash fer every bill of 
pcods received. 

Hotel Hartman. 

This first-class hostelry is kept by Mr. N. E. Wilson 
and his estimable wife, and is the only "$2.00-a-day" 
hotel in the town. Being experienced in the hotel busi- 
ness they are able to cater successfully to the public. 

Mr. N. E. Wilson, "Uncle Nat," as he is familiarly 
known, was born in Baltimore, Maryland, in 1824. 



Raving emigrated to Houston, Texas, when only fifteen 
years old, lie was a citizen of the Republic of Texas, an 
honor not to be lightly esteemed. 

In 1858, while merchandising in Weatherford, 


Parker County, Texas, he married Miss Katherine 
Smith, daughter and twelfth child of Saul- Smith, who 
was one of the early Commissioners of that county. 
Having returned \o Houston, he lost his wife there of 
yellow fever. She left three children, Warner, Charles 
and Helen. 

Mr. Wilson is an Episcopalian. His present wife a 
Virginian by birth, ig a nuember of the Presbyterian 


Webstee^ Hill & Baker. 

This wholesale house was established by Cameron, 
Hill & Baker in 1897, and was successfully run under 
that management until January 1, 1903, when Cameron 
and others were succeeded by Dr. J. P. Webster. 

This house carries a complete, up-to-date wholesale 
stock of groceries, and no firm is more favorably known 
in this section of the country. 

The President, Dr. Webster, lives in Weatherford, 
but superintends the business in person. In his ab- 
sence his place is filled by his son, J. G. Webster, a resi- 
dent of Cisco. 

Eppler & Russell. 

Nineteen years ago, when there were only two farms 
between Cisco and Rising Star, and all the cow-boys for 
twenty to thirty miles around came here to get their 
horses shod, Mr. Sol Eppler came to Cisco, bought an 
interest in the blacksmith shop owned by Mr. T. W. 
Plummer, and has since been working at the same stand 
and at the same prices. Business has rarely been so 
dull that he did not have a partner — usually enough 
to give both more than they could do. 

The firm has three forges well equipped, owns a 
60x24-foot building, and is capable of meeting all calls. 

Mr. Eppler, who has been in Texas fifty years, has 
a wife and three children. 

Mr. M. B. Russell was born in Georgia, and came to 
Texas in 1894, locating here two years ago. He is an 


energetic yoimg man, a member of the Presbyterian 
church and has a wife and twt) children, and possesses 
a pleanantlv situated liome. 

]\Ia\hew & Company, Haedwaiie 

This rapidly growing business was established in 
I'JUO, and carries a full line of impleni,ents and grain, 
both for the retail and wholesale trade. 

They handle the famous Blue Ribbon line of bug- 
gies, the old reliable Fish Bros, and Peter Schuttler 
wagons, and the M'oline and Bradley lines of im.ple- 

Having their own corn mill, they are enabled to offei 
for sale only the very best grain products the market 
affords. They carry a full stock of all kinds of fi-eld 
seeds, and are extensive pecan dealers, having shipped 
eleven carloads from Cisco the fall of 1902. 

In addition to their grain and implement business, 
rhey deal extensively in live stock, and always have 
mules and horses to sell, either for cash, trade or on 

The senior member of the firm, Aaron L. Mayhew, 
has charge of the implement and livestock department, 
Avner L. Miayhew of the grain department. Both are 
ilississippians, the junior member unmarried. These 
gentlemen arc courteous and willing to extend any favors 
in keeping with conservative business. 

The firm enjoys the patronage of Eastland and ad- 
Joining Counties. 


EisToRy o:^ iiASTLAnt) couNtr. 


George D. Fee & Company. 

This firm was established in 1898 in its own new 
double-brick building, and carries dry goods and gro^ 
ceries. Be it said to the credit of this firm that the old 
stock is disposed of at the end of the season at an enor- 
m.ous discount and new and up-to-date goods are always 
on the counters. The clerks are experiencel and cour- 

Mt. George Dawson Fee, the head of the firm, though 
quite a young man, is thoroughly conversant with his 
business in all departments. He was educated at Ox- 




ford University, Mississippi, and later toolc a business 
course at Atlanta, Georgia, coming to Cisco in 1889. 

Mr. Fee is a member of the Methodist church and 
has a wife and three children. 

Mes. J. D. Alexander. 

Mrs. Julia D. Ivnowlton-Alexander, born in Farm- 
mgton, Maine, June 21, 1858, came from the original 
family of Knowltons, whose ancestry can be traced back 
to those of Cheswick, Kent County, England. She is a 
lineal descendant of Col. Thomas Knowlton, a hero of 
the Eevolutionary War, whose bronze statue was erected 
on the grounds of the State Capitol, Hartford, Conn., 


MBS. J. D. 


msTon r of eastland go vnty. 155 

on the 15th day of November, 1895, at which time the 
Knowlton Association of America, of which M'rs. Alex- 
ander is a memiber, was formed. It holds its annual 
meetings in connection with the Bunker Hill Associa- 
ion. The family is a distinguished one, and has held 
prominent positions for many years. 

Mrs. Alexander, who camie to the South twenty-five 
years ago, has been an active business woman in Cisco 
for twenty-three years, and brought the first stock of 
millinery and fancy goods to the town. She is ever 
ready to extend a helping hand to the needy, and no 
v/oman in the county holds so many prominent positions 
in fraternal and other organizations. She is serving 
her seventh year as Secretary of the State Rebekah As- 
semhly, I. 0. 0. F. She was the first lady in the State 
to receive the Decoration of Chivalry, the highest com- 
pliment that can be paid to woman Ijy the Patriarch Mili- 
tant of the State, for meritorious work done in promot- 
ing the interests of the order. She was the first woman 
ever appointed State Organizer of the Lodge of Adop- 
tion of the Scottish Eite Masons of the thirty-second 
degree^ She is State 1;reasurer of the Texas Woman's 
Press vAssociation, although a member of only three 
years' standing, and a member of the League of Ameri- 
can Pen Women of Washington, D. C. 

Tn 1893 Mrs. Alexander was appointed a Commis- 
sioner from this County to the World's Fair held in Chi- 
cago, and is Lady Chairman of Eastland to the St. Louis 
Exposition. She organized the first Civic Improvement 
League in Cisco and devised the plan of work. 

In the home Lodges Mrs. Alexander is Admirable 

Jr „_ 




Mistress of the Lodge of Adoption, Past Matron of the 
Eastern Star Chapter, A. F. & A. M., and Past Pro- 
tector of the Knights and Ladies of Honor. She served 
two years as Noble Grand in the Rebekah Lodge and 
lour as Chaplain. She has recently been oppointed by 
the National Society of the Daughters of the Revolution, 
Regent for Cisco. 

Mr. Alexander, who came to this county m 1881. was 
for a long while in the dry goods business. He is now 
an extensive cotton buyer and insurance agent. Mr. 
and Mrs. Alexander are earnest supporters of any move 
that will advance the interests of the town. 

Mrs. Will Kleiner 

Has 240 acres of land under fence one mile north of 
Cisco. Twenty-five acres of this plot has been put in an 
orchard and vineyard. There are 1300 trees — apple 
pear, peach, plum and apricot, all of which grow and 
bear well. 

Seven thousand blackberry and dewberry vines fur- 
nish Mrs. Kleiner with more berries than the town of 
Cisco can consumie, and the surplus is put into jam and 
cordial, which she dispenses to those who want it. 

Tn this vineyard three thousand grape vines thrive 
and yield enormous quantities. The owner expects to 
put up 100 gallons of grape .I'uice next seagon for sacra- 
mental purposes. 

This property is valued at more than $6000.00. 


TliE Red Front Drug Store. 

This popular drug store was established by M|r. Yar- 
brough soon after the sale of lots in 1881, and has only 
changed hands twice, Mr. St. John having bought it 
from the Bon. 0. T. Maxwell. 

The present proprietor came to Texas in 1877 and 


followed the profession of teaching until fourteen years 
ago, since which timie he has been in the drug business. 
In 1902 he was elected Mayor of Cisco and has 
proven himself a mrast efficient officer. To his inde- 
fatigable efforts is due the formation of the Country 
Club and other important measures. At present his 


energies are directed towards securing from the railway 
companies a more commodious Union Depot, with flat- 
tering prospects of iiltimate success. 

j\[r. St. Jolin is a prominent member of the Baptist 
Church, has a most excellent wife and seven children. 

Dr. a. Owen. 

Born in Tennessee, Dr. Oven received his literary ed- 
ducation at Athens College in that State. He came to 
Eastland Count)', Texas, twenty years ago, and engaged 
in teaching. The next year he went hack to his native 
State for an helpmate, and together they began to lay 
by the large property they enjoy to-day. The plan pur- 
sued was to put the salary received for teaching into 
land and cattle, and at that time the price of both were 
low as compared to the present. 

Dr. Owen has diplomas from the Dental Department 
of the State University of Iowa, and from the celebrated 
Baltimore College of Dental Surgery, Raltinnore, Md., 
and enjoys a large practice. 

His conversion fifteen vears ago at Bedford Chapel, 
he considers the most imrortant event of his life. His 
religion is his business — lie lives it, ,While engaged in 
tlie drug business in the town of Eastland he was re- 
ceived into the Methodi?t Church and baptized hy the 
Bev. Jno. Lane. 

Thirteen years ago he moved to Cisco and has since 
been prominently identified with the forward move of 
the town. 

160 HI8T0B r OV KASTLAND 00 UNT7. 

M. T. Jones Lumbek Co. 

This Company, which does a wholesale business ex- 
tending over many States and Territories, maintains 
headquarters at Houston, Texas. Its large mills are 
located at Orange, Texas, from which place an exten- 
sive trade has been carried on with Europe and Mexico. 

The M. T. Jones Lumiber Co. is one of the large 
concerns that has kept pace with the moving frontier 
line of Texas, having always had in operation a num- 
ber of retail yards in the State. 

The Cisco yard, which has done a continuous bus- 
iness since its establishment in 1881, carries a large 
stock of all material usually found in a lum-ber yard. 

A number of men have had charge at difEerent times, 
hut Ihe present manager, H. L. Broadwell, has been 
stationed here for nearly thirteen years. All those 
who have business with this firm will be welcome call- 
ers at the Cisco office. 

Since the above was written this yard has been 
bought by Eockwell Bros. & Co., and is now The Cisco 
I.umber Company, with Mr. Broadwell as local man- 

J. M. Eadeoed Geoceey Company. 

Wholesale grocers. Established 1883. Capital 
stock, $200,000.00. Surplus, $300,000.00. 

The Eadford Grocery Company is one of the largest 
distributors of staple and fancy groceries in Texas and 
has houses at Cisco, Abilene, Stamiford and Sweetwater. 
The house began business in a very modest way in Abi- 


lene in ISSli, and has grown until it is one of the largest 
jobbing houses in the Slate. 

The members of this firmi know personally all their 
customers and the majority of people living in their 
trade territory. They are broad in ther views, are hus- 
tlers for business and stand ready to give good service 
and extend all favors that are in line with conservative 
demands and good judgment. If you desire to start 
in business, consult them. 

The officers of this company are J. M. Eadford, 
President; J. F. Handy, Treasurer; E. A. Batjer, Secre- 

John J. Winston. 

Mr. Winston, son of Col. Samuel and Isabella Win- 
ston, was born in Eutherford County, Tennessee. Com- 
ing to Cisco in 1883, he has greatly aided in the devel- 
opniient of the town and County. He was for several 
years a direcetor of the First National Bank of Cisco, 
and was one of the organizers of the water company. 

He is a large owner of bank stock, farm lands, busi- 
nesF and residence property, and by his fair and cour- 
teous treatment and close attention, he has built up an 
extensive mercantile business. He is a director in the 
Citizens' National Bank, has much faith in Eastland, 
and all of his investments are here. 

Mr. Winston, who married Miss Blla Barlow, of 
Bourbon County, Kentucky, has one child. Barlow, a 
boy of eight summers. Mr. and Mts. Winston give many 
elegant receptions in their spacious home, which is al- 
ways open to their friends. 

The Christian Church, in which Mr. Winston has 


msTon r of eastlaMd go xinty. 

served as Elder for seventeen years, finds in him a lib- 
eral supporter, a zealous worker and a true friend to 
the needy. 

Mr. Winston's successful business career has been 
founded on a true Christian character. 

w. l. wilson 
The Cisco Apert. 

In 1892 Mr. Warner L. Wilson established a new 
paper in the town of Cisco and gave it the unique name 

The Apert, which has always been Democratic, is 



the oldest printiiiu' establishment in the County under 
one management. 

The editor, Mr. Wilson, is a native Texan and 
Houston is his birthplace. While he is a staunch Demo- 
crat, he entertains liberal views and is generous toward 
those who differ with him. 


The Cisco Electric Light Company. 

Cisco was born in daj'kness and remained so unti]. 
Wood McSpadden and Mayhew & Company decreed there 
was to be light. 

The mandate went forth in the Summer time of 1903 


and down at the power house of the Cisco Electric Light 
Company is generated the spark that glows over pulpit 
H,nd office desk ; that flashes across and gleams afar down 
the dark streets; that makes the beautiful home? more 
beautiful and accentuates the spoken word in church 
and hall. 

The promoters of this enterprise are men who are 
ready to further large undertakings. 

Mr. MIcSpadden, who at one time was owner of the 
telephone exchange and materially enlarged and 
^strengthened that servics, set up the light plant, wired 
the buildings, and, pressing the button, turned on the 

Wood McSpadden is a very young man, was born 
in Tyler, Texas, and displays much energy and business 
acumen. He was married in 1899 to Miss Hines 
Mitchell and has one child. 

Mayhew & Company are thoroughly abreast of the 
advance interests of the town, and prominently identi- 
fied with several enterprises. 

J. L. G. Adams — Eye Specialist. 

"Seeing is believing," and from the truth of this 
proverb many testify to the ability of Dr. Adams, who 
was partly raised in this County. After having grad- 
uated from the Chicago College of Medicine and Sur- 
gery in 1895 he located in Cisco. He usually maintaint- 
four or five different offices in as many diiferent places, 
associating himself with a leading physician. 

Since 1895 he has taken Post Graduate courses in 
the following institutions: Illinois College of Medi- 








cine and Surgery and the College of Ophthalmology and 
Otology, St. Louis. 

Some of the cures Dr. A.danis has effected are little 
short of the miraculous — reading vision after twenty 
years darkness, because of scarred eyes, after continued 
terms in the Blind Asylum, or after treatment at va- 
rious well known hospitals. 

Dr. Adams is a skilled surgeon, and has straight- 
ened many hundreds of eyes. Leading physicians 
everywhere testify gladly to his ability as an oculist. 
His practice is limited to diseases and deformities of 
the eye that are curable, which are about ninety-five per 
cent. He has references from many who have been pro- 
nounced hopelessly blind and were led to his office, but 
who received sight after having received his treatment. 

Dr. Adams is associated with Dr. B. P. Jones and 
offices over the Merchants' and Farmers' Bank. 


Rising Star. 

The year 1875 had passed into history, yet 
no hunter nor early settler, with his ax, his 
gun and his dog, disturbed the pudder of the wild tur- 
key mothering her young, the feeding of the prairie 
chicken in the high sage grass that abounded, nor the 
gambols of the deer that sported on the banks of the 
streams. But in the dawn of 1876 a star of 
promise began to shed its radiance, and in the light of 
its dawning six families from Gregg County wended 

1(58 HtaroR r oP eastlaJ^d go tfNTt. 

their way to the valley, over which it settled and made 
their homes there. These fortunate pioneers were W. 
AY. Smith, Dave McKinley, Isaac Agnew, Fletcher 
Fields, AUie Smith and Andy Agnew. Finding good 
^oil, abundance of wild game, and water, they decided 
to remain permanently, and began the improvement of 
ilieir claims. Fort Wortli was the nearest railroad sta- 
tion, and from this town and Waco the people bought 
their supplies and marketed their products. 

In these early days, ISTG-ISTO, the mail was brought 
once a week from Sipe Springs on horse back. Mr. 'Os- 
borne, who lived two miles east of where Rising S%ar 
is now located, was the postmaster. It rrliay or may 
not have been this postmaster who could not read and 
v.hose wife carried the mail in her pocket. iWhea a -call 
Mas made she handed the letters to the party and he, 
taking out his own, returned the test. She carried one 
for the postmaster a week. 

When application was made for a postoffiee, Osborne 
was suggested as a name, but the anthorties sent *Rising 
Star instead. 

In the Fall of 1879 Uncle Tommy Anderson bought 
I'lom Dave McKinley the tract of land on which the 
town has been built. Ill the Spring of 1880 he moved 
tlie postofBce to his home and put up a small storehouse. 
Here he kept the postofSce, groceries and farm supplies. 
In 1883 a larger store was built near by. since which 
lime the town has grown steadily, and now numhers 
about seven hundred souls. 

*It is sail that Mr. Anderson, u. son-in-law of Mr. Ag- 
new, suggested the name of Rising Star. 


The people early evinced a strong desi.e for enlight- 
Ojiment by raising a 10x12 log school house and electing 
a Mr. Bill Welch as teacher. Mr. Welch was thor- 
oughly in harmony with his environments, often teach- 
ing under the branches of the trees, and not infrequcuLlj 
going to school barefooted. This small, floorlesw, log 
school house stood one and one-half miles east of the 
pj'csent town. A few years later a better and a larger 
log house was built near the cemetery, and here many 
of the substantial citizens of this County were educated. 
Mr. James Irby, who came here in 1877, was one of the 
pioneer teachers. 

The business interests of the town are represented by 
loyal citizens. There are several large dry goods and 
grocery firms, drug stores, hardware, a bank, hotel, and 
the usual number of smaller shops and eating houses. 
There are two newspapers, five church buildings with 
as many organizations, and a handsome school building 
with seven teachers and three hundred and fifty pupils. 

The town is supported by a very rich farming and 
truck growing district of fifteen miles radius. The soil 
i= a light sand with a red clay subsoil and is especially 
adapted to the drouthy climate. Corn, cotton,maize, cane 
and oat^ grow luxuriantly ;berries, apples, peaches, plums, 
.apricots, grapes and all kinds of fruits are easy and proli- 
fic producers. As a truck growing section it has no su- 
perior. Cabbages, without irrigation, have produced 
heads weighing thirteen iind a half pounds, beets have 
weighed twenty- five pounds, onions two; tomatoes, and 
potatoes of both varieties, grow easily and are heavy 



The nearest railroad point is about twenty miles. 
Carloads of fruit and vegetables rot on the ground for 
lack of convenient shipping points. 

In 1903 forty-five hundred bales of cotton were 
marketed and forty-two hundred were ginned by the 
iwo plants here. This same year eighteen thousand bales 
were ginned at the ten plants within the neighborhood 
of the Star country. 

This section of the county is especially free from 
grasshoppers, boll weevil and all crop and garden pests. 

The X-Eat. 

Albert Tyson is the founder and proprietor of this 
original paper. 

If one wants truths frankly told; if when one is hit, 
one prefers the blow to come straight from the shoulders, 
one would do well to read Mr. Tyson's paper. 

The illustration on the opposite page represents Mr, 
J. M. Tyson — ^the editor's father — gathering apples from 
a six year old Early Harvest apple tree. He moved to 
Eastland in 1878, and has a thirty-acre apple orchard 
two miles north of Rising Star. At the Farmer's Insti- 
tute held in Eastland City November, 1903, he was 
awarded a prize on the apples he exhibited. 

The Eising Star Eecoed. 

The Eising Star Eecord came into existence April 
4, 1903. George T. Barnes, with T. B. Staton, under- 
took the establishment of the paper. Without a single 
subscriber the first issue was brought out, but the third 


issue was distributed to three hundred regular subscrib- 
ers. January 1. 1904. the subscription list was five hun- 

January 1, 1904, the Record Company began the pub- 
lication of the May Enterprise. Both papers have a cir- 
culation of over nine hundred. The Eecord. while not 
given strictly to politics, stands for Democratic princi- 
ples, for the upbuilding of the Sandy Belt — the garden 
spot of Texas — and for the dissemination of local and 
general news am;ong the people. 

George T. Barnes and C. A. and Sidney W. Smith 
are the proprietors of the Record Printing Company. 

W. A. Buci AND Brothee. 

Fifteen years ago W. P. Bucy opened a stock of fur- 
niture and did well, but soon discovered that to be able 
to accommodate the patronage he had he must keep 
farming implements. The business proved so success- 
ful that Mr. Bucy's oldest son, William A., became a 
partner in 1895, and the supply was increased. Seven 
years later, January 1, 1902, this son bought the entire 
stock, and three months later sold it to H;. E. Anderson. 

That Mr. Bucy is never so happy as when trading 
is evidenced by the following figures : On Septemtier 
23, 1902, he bought out the J. H. Montgomery drug 
business and sold it January 1, 1903, to Levi McCollum 
and Minnix, and took in exchange their stock of general 
merchandise, which he increased. 

On January 1, 1904, Ed Bucy bought an interest, 
and the store is now the second largest in town. The 

W. p. BUCY 

174 maroR r of bastland go untt. 

floor space is being enlarged and will cover, when com- 
pleted, 5,610 square feet. 

Bucy Brothers expect to do a $50,000 business the 
year of 1904. Eising Star is fortunate to have such 
energetic men as citizens. 

H. E. Anderson 

Has the largest store in Texas in an inland town, and 
it contains everything except drugs. 

Long years ago Uncle Tommy Anderson sold one acre 
of ground to J. Y. HuJse, and stipulated that if in- 
toxicants were ever sold on the land it would revert to the 
original owners. 

In 1883, H. E. Anderson, son of Uncle Tommy, 
bought out Mr. Hulse's stock of general merchandise, 
but soon sold out to Rev. J. K. Miller and Mr. Sayles. 
Then he built a new and larger store, and has since car- 
ried a stock of general merchandise, employing from 
eight to fifteen clerks. 

There are few men who have the courage of their 
convictions in a more marked degree than Mr. Ander- 
son. In 1885 and 1886, when conditions were vastly dif- 
ferent from the present time, a big barbecue and dance 
was twice given by the Rising Star community to influ- 
ence people to become citizens. 

Twice did Mir. Anderson refuse to contribute to this 
entertainment because of the last fe(ature of it — ^the 
dance. He was converted at sixteen years of age, made 
steward in the Methodist church at eighteen, was the 
first Sunday School Superintendent in the town, and 


bad Jived what he professed. The stand he took on this 
occasion had great effect. 

Mr. Anderson is the present Sunday School Superin- 
tendent in the J[ethodi=t Church, and his wife is a 
daughter of Major Munn of Nimirod. 



A thriving little city of twelve hundred population, 
is situated on the Texas Central Eailroad, twenty-five 
miles southeast of Cisco. The town was surveyed in 
1891 by the railroad people and began its existence in 
the virgin forest — the Oliver Chill Plow having forced 
the stockmen westward. The era, thus inaugurated by 
the arrival of the railroad, made of this section a very 
attractive portion of the State by the development of the 
superior advantages of this immediate locality. 

Fruits and vegetables, together with a thoroughly di- 
versified agricultural product, offered strong induce- 
ments to the emigrant from the East, and year by year 
the town has grown, developing rare commercial possi- 
bilities, and has attained a prosperous and established 

It is the proud boast of this people that they are 
surroimded by the miost productive soil that can be found 
west of the Brazos river, and with a thoroughly up to 
date lot of business men the little city is gradually but 
«urely forging its way to the front. 


All lines of business are well represented — from the 
bank and the big department stores down to the chili 
joint, and employ a capital of $500,000. Kimble & 
Criinie, druggists; J. E. Huckabeo, general merchandise; 
Low & Troxell, general merchandise; Mr. Winters' gin, 
the largest and best in West Texas; Mrs. Yates' hotel. 
The May Drug Company. T. L. Gates Lumber Yard, 
the weekly newspaper, a canning factory in active and 
■successful operation, are some of the stores and shops 
and business interests of the town. These numerous 
interests enable Grorman to handle her own immense ag- 
ricultural products to the very best advantage. 

The town is incorporated for municipal and school 
purposes. The splendid churches, together with organ- 
ized lodges, chartered clubs and business men's organi- 
zations, foster and keep in close touch the religious and 
f-ocial life with the commercial advancements. 

Everything considered, the town stands without a ri- 
val in many respects in this section of the State, and of- 
fers special inducements to the home seeker. 

F. B. Winters. 

The accompanying illustration represents the gin 
plant built by Mr. Winters in 1899. From the stand- 
noint of modern machinery and up-to-date equipment it 
has no superior in the State. 

One hundred and fifty horse power boiler and en- 
gines are used, and it has c. capacity of one hundred and 
twenty bales daily. Mr. Winters uses the Mtinger sys- 
tem. The gin is ligted by electricity and runs day and 





history of eastland county. 179 

The Bank of Gorman. 

This bank was established in 1900, with W. H. Ed- 
dleman, president; ;W. A. Waldrop, cashier; E. E. Wal- 
drop, assistant cashier. 

The responsibility is $500,000.00 

Large and small accounts are desired, and Mr. Wal- 
drop and his assistant will make it both pleasant and 
profitable to all those who do business with them. 

T. L. Gates, Lumber. 

This lumber yard was established in Gorman in the 
summer of 1899 and has steadily grown in popularity, 
both from the completeness and grade of stock carried 
and from the courteous treatment accorded to all custom.- 
ers. It is now one of the strong financial interests of 
the promising town. 

The founder and sole owner of this business, T. ]j. 
Gates, is a significant factor in the community. He 
came to Texas from Mississippi in 1893, and was for five 
years Superintendent of the De Leon Schools, and then 
served as cashier of the bank at that place for two years. 
He is at present chairman of the County Democratic 
Committee. Mr. Gates is a member of the Methodist 
church and superintendent of the Sunday School. He is 
]?nown in church circles as an enthusiastic Sunday School 
worker and a most efiiciept layman. 

titSTOnr OP EAST^LAlStD COVm^Y'. 18l 


In 1881 the first lot in Carbon, a town on the Texas 
Central Eailway, between Glorman and Cisco, was sold to 
X. 8. Haynes, who put up a small business house. An 
attenfipt to mqve the town three miles east having failed, 
J. F. White established a lumber .yard, Mr. Fowler and 
son put up a cotton gin, and M!t. Train taught school. 

From the numljer of business houses in this little 
town, shops, hotels and gins, a good weekly newspaper, 
with a hustling editor ; its bank soon to open in its own 
brick building; its Baptist and Methodist churches, Ma- 
sonic hall and neat two-story school building. Carbon 
bids fair to rival some of her more pretentious sister 
towns. When to this is added the fertile soil (a sandy 
loam), which produces corn, cotton and a very great va- 
riety of vegetables of enormous sizes; also fruit, as ap- 
ples, peaches, pears, apricots and plums, as well as the 
grape and berries of all kinds, one is not surprised that 
the country round about Carbon is being cultivated by 
thrifty farmers in rapidly increasing numbers. 

Among'the enterprising business people of Carbon 
are Finley Bros., dry goods; T. J. Morris, general mer- 
chandise; Puett & Son, dry goods; W. A. Seastrunk, ho- 
tel, and many others. 

There are about sir hundred inhabitants. 

Near this place Mr. J. _H. Bransford, who has been in 
the county many years, successfully irrigates a truck 

aline campbell 
Eastland County's Pbizb Baby 

llisrORt OF EASTLAl^b COUJSTY. 183 

The PIerald. 

Published Friday, W. T. Curtis, editor and proprie- 
tor. The Herald, the local paper for Eastland County, 
pleases its readers and pays its advertisers, and is strict- 
ly a local and county newspaper. 

Although not published at the County Town, it brings 
all court news of importance to the general public. It 
has a good circulation and is increasing rapidly. 

Only clean advertising from clean people is in- 

The Bank of Carbon. 

Responsibility, $500,000.00. 

W. H. Eddleman, president; W. A. Waldrop, vice 
president; J. B. Spencer, cashier. 

That so able a financier as W. H. Eddleman is con- 
nected with this bank insures its solidarity. That J. B. 
Spencer, who has been in the banking business for sev- 
eral years, is its cashier, speaks for its popularity, while 
Mr. Waldrop, the efficient cashier of the Bank of G-or- 
man, only emphasizes the strength of the organization. 

The Carbon Bank occupies its own two-story brick 

FiNLEY Bros. 
W. P. Finley. S. P. Finley. 

The members of this firm were born in Tennessee 
and emigrated to Texas with their parents and the other 
brothers in 1867. They located in Eastland in the raiem- 
orable year of 1876, and engaged in farming. Later 
some of the family lived at Jewell, and in the early '80's 

184 il8T0R f Op EAtiTlANt) CO tfJVTt. 

W. P. Finley and Mr. Duke (now of Dallas) merchan- 
dised at Cisco. 

This firm established itself here in a general mer- 
chandise business in 1895 and enjoys a long and grow- 
ing trade. 

The Pulleys are substantial and progressive citizens 
and foster every interest of the promising town. 

Mt. S. P. Finley is the able President of the Board 
of Trustees. 

A. C. PoE, M. D. 

Dr. Poe was born in Magnolia, Arkansas, and came 
to Carbon, Texas, in 1896. 

He received his education in the public schools of his 
native State, and took his degree from; the M'emphis 
Hospital Medical College. 

Dr. Poe is the senior mtember of the firm of Poe & 
Moore, Druggists. This firm is one of the three State 
agents in this county for the supply of school books 
adopted by the Board of Examiners. 

It is such mien as Dr. Poe that make a town grow. 
Hte believes in the future prosperity of the town, backed 
by its richly promising agricultural possibilities, and 
upon this belief he makes his investments. 

With C. B. Poe as a partner, the Doctor is interested 
in a lumber yard, which does a large business and carries 
a complete and up-to-date stock. 

Besides his various business interests this enterpris- 
ing citizen does an extensive practice. As an evidence 
of the prosperity of the people of this section, and of 
their integrity as well, they pay on an average 95 per 
Qent of their physician's accounts. 


T. J. MoRKis^ Merchant. 

On January 14, 1S!I3, with a siuall stock of "Racket 
goods," Mr. Morris began business in Carbon. Two 
years later he erected and moved into a building in the 
center of the town, where he is still located. 

Few men have had more marked success than Mr. 
Morris. From the small beginning, made a little more 
than one decade ago, his business has grown until now 
he handles everything in a general merchandise line. 
Besides dry goods and groceries, hardware and every 
conceivable kind of farming implement, he handles 
furniture and undertaker's goods. 

Mr. Morris' energy and ingenuity does not stop here. 
He is interested in the two gins of Morris Bros, and 
Fowler at Carbon and Hooker's Spur. His latest ven- 
ture is stockng his fine ranch near town with goats, some 
of which are thoroughbreds. 

It is plainly evident that Mr. Morris invests strictly 
in Carbon "futures." 



Ninety-five miles west of Fort Worth the historic 
little town of Ranger stands. Many, ra'any years ago, be- 
fore the valleys of Eastland had ever i^elt the thrill and 
ijar of rumbling cars, or her hills had echoed the shrill 
cry of an engine, the Indians found and utilized a mag- 
nificent rendezvous a few miles east of Ranger, where 



now the Texas and Pacifle Eailway bridges the deepest 
canon in Texas. After one of their usual raids the In- 
dians fled to this canon, now so fardous for its rugged 
beauty, and were followed by the Texas Eangers, than 
whom no class of men have done more for Texas. 
These poorly fed and poorly paid guardians of life and 
property on the frontier drove the Indians on this occa- 


si on from their lair. On emerging from the deep and 
ragged gorge the Eangers found themselves in a beauti- 
ful, level * valley of richest soil and luxuriant grasses, 
but did not loiter, as they pushed hard on after the In- 
dians, overtaking them at what is known as "One Hun- 

*It is said that the valley 'wnas known among the In- 
dians as the CacJdo Indian Bail Ground. 


dred * Mile Mountain." Here a battle was fought and the 
victorious Eangers struck tent in the luxurioiis val- 
ley, where the Watson Ranch is now situated. The ex- 
act date of this battle could not be learned, but it is 
thought Captain Whiteside, who lost his life in the cy- 
clone at Cisco, was in command of the Rangers. 

Twenty-five years ago the valley was dotted with 
tents. One year later A. J. Sims and a Mr. Griffin formed 
a partnership and carried a stock of general merchandise 
in a tent store. Mr. Griffin did a thriving hotel busi- 
ness, also in a tent, prior to forming this partnership. 
There were tent schools and tent churches. Tom Coop- 
er, brother of one of Rangers' m,ost popular teachers, 
was the first boy born in the town. A little girl made 
her advent one day before Tom's arrival. In the Ran- 
ger valley some two hundred or three hundred people 
lived in tents until the railroad came, when houses went 
up as if by magic. Ranger was built a couple of miles 
west of where the tent town had had its existence. The 
oldest settler living in Ranger today is John Bryant, 
who came in 1881. 

Ranger has three good church buildings, Methodist, 
Baptist and Cumberland Presbyterian, with leagues and 
young people's societies; a High School, which is corre- 
lated with the State University, a phone system and 
water works, bank, five doctors and the usual number of 
stores, eating houses, etc. 

In the tent town there were saloons and gambling 

*"One hundred miles" from where could not be learned, 
but the mountain stands out clear-cut and runs down into 
the valley near the railroad. 

188 StSTORY 6i' ^ASfLAi^D COVNTt. 

dens, in the Ranger of today there are no houses of vice 
of any kind. 

Ranger has a population of about seven hundred 
and fifty. 

The Ranger '03 Club — a woman's literary club— has 
founded a public library and is gradually increasing the 
number of volumes. 

C. E. Feost, M. D.; A. B.; A. M. 

Dt. C. El. Frost, the oldest resident physician of 
Ranger, was born in Tennessee. His father, J. B. Frost, 
fell heir to sixty-two negroes in 1859 arid 1860, but set 
the,m free at once. As a result of this philanthropy the 
boy Cyrus had to work out his own destiny. He cut wood 
for two fireplaces and a stove, fed t'^n horses, twenty 
cows, a drove of hogs and a flock of sheep for his board, 
and worked Saturdays for his clothes. He took his lit- 
erary degree at the Northern Illinois Normal Univer- 
sity. He attended the Nashville Medical College, where 
later at the Missouri Medical College, he gratuated in 
1878 with first honors. Mrs. Frost is a daughter of 
Dr. 0. D. Tankersly of Arkansas. 

Dr. Frost located at Ranger in 1892 and has prac- 
ticed his profession night and day continuously since 
that time with the most marked success, never having 
suffered from an accident of any kind, nor had a diag- 
nosis changed. He is a scholarly, scientific, up-to-date 
physician and surgeon, a consistent. Christian Methodist 
citizen, and is held in high esteem by the profession and 
his patrons. 




Scranton, a town of about one hundred and fifty in- 
habitants, is situated in a thickly settled, agricultural 
cornmimity, which lies twelve miles southwest of Cisco, 
near the line of Callahan County. 

The first man who set.lted in tliis locality was D. C. 
Lane, who came in 1ST.3, and was followed by H. B. 
I^an-, ilr. HufE, Aaron Brown, Uncle Joe Brown and 
NTat Hendrickson. These, together with Messrs. 
Sprawls,- Eay, G-attis, Clement, Rutherford and many 
others, have made a progressive and substantial com-' 

In 188 — Mr. Snoddy taught a school here. The in- 
terest in education has gradually increased until Scran- 
ton now boasts of an incorporated school district, and one 
of the best schools in th,e county. There is a commodi- 
ous, two-story building, with a separate music room on 
the campus. 

The Miethodist and Baptist churches were organized 
here in 1893, the former by Rev. M. Mi. Smith, the lat- 
terby Rev. J. R. Eelly. Both churches have good build- 
ings"^nd are served at present by Rev. J. L. Mills, Meth- 
odist, and Rev. G-. W. Parks, Baptist. 

The Post Office was esablisbed in 1892, with Mr. 


Reydon as Postmlaster. Mr. Eeydon also put up the 
first gin in 188 — . The present fine gin is owned by 
a stock company of farmers. J. M. Williamson of Cis- 
co was the pioneer mierchant. Ani,ong the present pro- 
gressive business firm's are E. E. Chunn, dry goods, 
groceries and hardware; I. E. Cook & Bro., dry goods, 
and W. L. Gattis & Son, druggists. 


This prosperous and enterprising community was 
first settled by A. J. Fembling and Mr. Ballard. These 
were soon followed by E. J. Arnold, Dr. J. N. White 
and Mr. Green, all from West Virginia. 

During the disastrous drouth of 1886-1887 emigra- 
tion stopped, but the natural advantages of the locality 
held the first settlers, and even in the most trying period 
brought Mr. P. N. B. Ghormerly. 

The Freenian and Bashan brothers, J. C. MteCoy, 
T. D. Freeman, E. J. Arnold, T. J. Finn, W. E. and C. 
C. Bashan and Dr. J. W. White organized the school 
community and a school house was put up at once. T. D 
Freeman was the first teacher, and A. J. Tyson, editor 
r>i the X-Ray, published at Eising Star, followed him. 

The Eomney Postoffice was established August 15, 
1890, T. D. Freemlan, Postmaster. The country has 
developed rapidly. All agricultural products, fruits and 
vegetables grow well, making this one of the miost pro- 
gressive communities in the County. 

Mt. W. p. Grubbs of Arkansas established the first 
store, then sold to H. D, Holbrook. At present T. T), 


Freemian, who has charge of the long-distance telephono 
and is Postmaster, has the only store in the village, wliich 
also contains a blacksmith shop, a gin and a good school . 

The Baptist, Disciples of Christ and Methodists havj 
organizations and worship at the school house. 

The citizenship of this locality represents a moral 
and progressive people, who welcome all who come among 


William and Ben Funderburg pre-empted the land 
on which Desdemona is built. The Funderburgs (who 
later sold their pre-emption to Bill Brown), Lewis Elli- 
son and Uncle Johnny Caruth were the first settlers of 

Mr. Frank Roach, the first merchant of Desdemona, 
put up a lSxl6 store building, the boys lending a hand, 
which was dedicated with a danc€ the niglit of the fir«t 
wedding in the new, old town. Mr. Willie Matthews and 
Miss Ella ParmI, who were the contracting parties, w re 
married at Tom Prather's home, M'ary Caruth and Mr. 

■ — : "standing up" with them. After the cerumonv 

the crowd, chaperoned by Lewis Ellison and wife, re- 
paired to Mr. Roach's new store and danced all night. 

The first school house, eighteen by twenty feet, was 

•Desdemorva was named in honor of the daughter of 
Squire Wynn. 


built of hewed logs, with a log cut out at one end for a 
window. The benches were made by splitting trees in 
two — one of these with longer legs in front was put up 
by the window for a writing desk. Mir. Johnny Caruth 
and Charlie Mitchell were paid $80.00 to put up the 

On the second Sunday in June, 1872, the Eev. John- 
nie E. Northcutt, a Baptist minister, preached under 
the large Spanish oaks shading the picturesque bridge 
which now spans the historic Hog Creek, at Desdemona. 
and kept up the appointments until September. He was 
then allowed the privilege of the log school house and or- 
ganized Eockdale Church, with nine members, John 
Caruth, wife and daughter — Mrs. Mary N. Jasper, Aunt 
Sallie Eobinson, Nancy Ellison, Jim Ellison and wife, 
John Cowen and Mrs. Sallie Ivy. 

Pleas Jones lived in the Hogtown community in a 
single log cabin, 10x12. For some unknown reason the 
floor of the cabin was the naked bosom of mother earth. 
A wagon board lay from the door to the hearthstone. 

One night a young man hunting a locality where he 
might secure a school, stopped, as night had overtaken 
him, and asked for lodging. 

''AH right, pard," assented Jones. "Git down and 
come in. You'll have ter laret out yer nag, 'cause T 
hain't got no feed fer her." 

The fare given to the man was in keeping with the rest 
of the surroundings, and his mind was relieved of won- 
dering who would sit up when a buffalo hide was thrown 
down on the wagon board, with a pillow, and he was 
told his bed was ready ! Imagine his surprise when he 


asked next morning how m'uch he was indebted for his 
and his mare's lodging and was told, "Well, seein' its 
you, I'll only charge yer a dollar !" 

The young man, who was none other than Judge 
Hammons of Eastland City, rode on and secured and 
taught the school. 

The town is beautifully located on rising ground, 
sloping east from Hog Creek. The community is in- 
corporated for school purposes, and expects to erect a 
large, handsome building. 

There are five dry goods and grocery establishments, 
the most prominent among them are Captain A. J. 
O'Rear, staple and fancy groceries, and Dr. Snodgrass, 
drugs and general merchandise, who is also a stockholder 
in the fine gin stand and a successful practicing physi- 

De. Copeland, who has studied in Missouri 
Medical College, in St. Louis, and graduated from Fort 
Worth Medical College, is a physician of growing popu- 
larity and prominence. 

That the doctors collect 95 per cent of their bills 
speaks well for the community, as it does for the soil 
which makes it possible. 

A good school is maintained at Desdemona. The 
Baptist and Methodist churches have buildings and good 
organizations. The Christian Church building is in 
want of repairs, 


The Methodist Church. 

The first church organized in the county, of which 
there is anything known, was in the Allen neighborhood 
and was effected by Eev. William Mlonk, a pioneer 
preacher, who attended his first Texas Annual Confer- 
ence at Tyler, in 1854. In 1865 Mr. Monk was on the 
Palo Pinto Misison, which included Eastland County. 
With a few members he organized a Methodist church 
on the Allen and Davidson ranch. The m'erabers were 
Peter Dayidson, wife and four children, Robert 
Xewberry and Uncle Bobbie Martin, with their fami- 

Mr. Monk writes: "In 1872 I was Presiding Elder 
on the Stephenville District. In 1873 I attended a 
Quarterly Conference at McGough's Springs. Rev. 
Levi P. Collins was the missionary and had organized 
a little church there, which I suppose was the second or- 
ganization in the county. The county was infested by 
Indians. jWe all went to church with our guns, not 
knowing what moment we would be attacked. Two 
nights before I went to McGough Springs the Indians 
stole my horse at Picketville in Stephens County. I 
made my way down there on borrowed horses, and from 
there to Comanche I went on a wagon, where I secured 
another horse." 

The following letter is self-explanatory and will be 
interesting to many old settlers : 



"Iredell, Texas, October 13, 1903.— Dear Sister 
Langston: You want to know what territory was in- 




eluded in the Palo Pinto Misison when I was pastor in 
1865 and 1866. It included all of Palo Pinto County, 


all of Erath east of Stephenville and all of Johnson 
west of the Brazos River. Hood County was not organ- 
ized then. I also had two appointments in Parker 
County, Big Valley, where your father then lived, and 
Kiekapoo. I made the 'round on my work every four 
weeks, preaching under trees, in private houses, under 
brush arbors and in littlo school houses. Our congre- 
gations would be from twenty to one hundred people. 
We had some great revivals. I organized the first 
church at Big Valley and held a great meeting. When 
I traveled the Stephenville District in 1872, '73 and "74, 
it included all the territory west of the Brazos Elver 
from Waco to Fort Belknap, Fort GrifSn, San Angelo, 
Camp Colorado and Fort Mason. These were the out- 
side settlements, but all the territory to isew Mexico be- 
longed to the district. I made the round every three 
months on horseback, with my Winchester rifle hang- 
ing to the horn of my saddle, and my wardrobe in 
a pair of saddle bags. Thes^e were the happiest years of 
my life. I believe all the preachers that were associ- 
ated with me then have passed away, except Levi Coll- 
ins and Brother Smith of Stephenville. If I could see 
you I could tell you many things of interest, hut caii 
write but little now. Wishing you success with your 
book, I am yours, W. MONK." 

Today there are about 2,000 Methodists in this Coun- 
ty. Histories of a few of the individual churches fol- 

EisiNG Star Church. — This charge first belonged 
to the Pecan Circuit and was served by L. S. Chamber- 
lain in 1877. In 1879 this same preacher was returned 



to the work and then organized the class at Eising Star 
with eight members, Jaines Trb}', Sallie J. Irby, An- 
drew Agnew, N. S. Agnew, I. P. Agnew, Sarah Agnew, 

THE METHODIST CHURCH, RISING Stab.— PAoto by Watkins, Bising Star 

Dennis Bond and Sarah Tannerhill. Out of the eight 
memlbers only James Irby and wife remain with thn 
church today. It was at a night appointment this or- 
ganization was made in a little 10x12 log school house 


«rith a dirt floor, and was the first church organized in 
;his part of the County. 

The Rising Star Misison was created some time later 
with two appointments (Jewell being the other), and 
had an appropriation of one Irandred dollars from 
the missionary board. It was included in the Breckin- 
ridge District, with A. K. Miller as Presiding Elder 
r,nd G. F. Fair pastor, 1883-1885. 

By and by a new school house was built near where 
the cemetery now lies, and served for church purposes. 
The class continued to gather strength; to its member- 
ship were added those of Uncle Tommie Anderson and 
his family. Mrs. L. S. Anderson still retains her mem- 
bership. She is the aged mother of H. E. Anderson. 

In 1881 the first Sunday school was organized 
in the school house. A Methodist Sunday School 
in a school house did not prosper, so under the leader- 
ship of the indefatigable R. R. Raymond a church was 
built and later a parsonage. They are valued at $2,000. 
On a beautiful, grass-covered lawn this church has put 
up a tabernacle at a cost of $300.00. 

In 1902, under the pastorate of J. H. Chambliss, as- 
sisted by J. C. Watkins, a most wonderful revival took 
place, resulting in such an increased membership that 
the church had to be enlarged. This was done at a cost 
of $500, making a total of $2,800 of church property. 
With a membership of nearly three hundred, a fine Sun- 
day school, both Senior and Junior Epworth Leagues 
and an active Woman's Foreign Missionary Society, the 
church is doing well. 

Rev. D. A. McGuire is the present pastor. 


HISTORY OS' Eastland counTV. 

The Church at R.4NGER was organized by Eev. 
Hightower in a tent in 1881. The membership has 
growTi to ninety-two with church property valued at 
■'ijl ,500.00, which includes a house of worship and par- 
pomge. The present pastor is Eev. B. E. Wagner. 


The Cisco Methodist Church had its beginning 
in the fertile brain of a pioneer "circuit rider," Eev. 
Lamb Trimible. On the quiet hunt for any one who 
wore the name of Methodist, where he might find a kin- 
dred spirit, shelter and something to eat, he discovered 
M. V. Mitchell and wife (in a log hut 10x12 feet) 
running a sheep ranch. The tired preacher was not long 


in accepting a large hospitality in small quarters. The 
dirt floor to the little room had been overlaid with grass 
and on this was spread a carpet. The cubby-hole, (or 
jhed room) and a bed of skins was the only place for the 
preacher, while plenty of blankets for cover and a good 
case of religion made him happ3\ 

In 1880 this pTeacher organized the first church, and 
when that roll was called the only names were M. V. 
Mitchell and wife,, Mr. and Mrs. Walton. Mr. Mitchell 
was elected steward. This church was begun in a little 
'.og school house, located where now lies the beautiful 
cemetery. Eev. Andrews was the next circuit rider, and 
• lohn Lane steward. In 1881 Cisco was founded at the 
ijnction of the railroadS; and everybody moved to town, 
the school, post office and church following the people. 

Kev. Mills was the next pastor. He and Rev. E. B. 
Vaughan canvassed the new town for Methodists and 
found about tv.'enty. The people were all living in tents 
A school house was s^on built by popular contributions, 
f.nd this sufficed as a place for the monthly preic'iiing. 

Two or throe years latei , during the pastorate of Eev. 
John A. Wallace, a small church, costing six or seven 
hundred dollars, vvas erected on the lot where the present 
building now stands. 

During the pastorate of Eev. T. C. Eagsdale the 
house was enlarged to meet the growing demands of the 
congregation. This was swept away by the cyclone in 
1893, and a beautiful and commodious house was erected 
at a cost of about $6,000. The church has a parsonage 
valued at $1,200, and a membership of three hundred 
and thirty members. During the past year under the 
pastorate of S. J. Vaughn there was a net gain in mem- 

Hisroli y OF EASTLAND 00 UNT7. 305 

ln'it^hipof ciglity, and about $800 were expended in im- 
provements on the church and parsonage. The church 
is doing fine work in all departm^ents. The building is 
lighted by electricity. 

The Carbon Chuech was first organized in 1890 
by I. N. Eeeves, with about twenty members. There 
was no building other than Thurman's store, which was 
utilized, the counters serving, in part, for pews. As 
the preacher stood with his back to the door he could not 
understand, during this first sermon at 11 o'clock Sun- 
day morning, why a row of girls directly in front of him 
were so intensely amused. They caused so much confu- 
sion that he stopped shortly after he began and dismissed 
the audience. Afterwards he learned that a man oni- 
on the street in front of the door, with a woman's sun- 
bonnet on his head, was "making a monkey of himself." 

At night the audience gathered early. The counters 
were filled with boys, who wore clanking spurs. The 
preacher had. barely reached his "secondly" when one of 
the boys on the counter noisily left the room, brushing 
right by the minister, who stood near the entrance. 
In a very few minutes another boy was rattling his spurs 
in his rush to get outside with the one who started what 
was evidently meant to include all who sat with them. 
At this juncture Dt. Jules Trader rose to his feet and 
with an imjjetuous oath exclaimed, "Parson, I don't 
want to interfere, but if you'll knock the next boy down 
who tries to pass you, I'll stand by yon." The sermon 
continued without further interruption. , 

I. N. Neel, agent of the railroad, , organized and 
taught a Sunday School in the station house where he 
lived. Later, the railroad gave the, town, an acre of 


ground on which to build a school house. When this 
was completed the Sunday School went there, and at the 
end of Mr. Reeves' second year there were eighty-seven 
inenibera. The church building was erected during the 
pastorate of Eev. Maxwell. The present pastor is Hev. 
J. H. Walker. 


The Baptist Churc ii.— This church organization 
might be truthfully compored to a mighty oak, whose 
roots dig down deep through the soil, drink in and trans- 
mit the food to the trunk, limbs, branches and 
leaves, and forage for the minerals that help color 
the foliage and make it a thing of joy and beauty, as 
well as a protection from the sun's fierce rays and the 
storm's beating rain. Nor is this all, it affords the song- 
sters of the forest a sheltering place for their young. 

As this mighty oak has grown from a tiny acorn and 
is now able to withstand the terrible wrenchings of storm 
and tornado, so the Baptist Churches have grown in 
Eastland County. 

Away back many years ago-— Mr. M'cGough does not 
remember the date— under a brush arbor, the Eev. W. 
H. Erashears organized the first Baptist Church in East- 
land witi) seven members, C. Brashears, J. R. Higgins, 
Enoch Dawson. Amanda Dawson, W. C. McGough and 
Avife .and the preacher. This was known as Providence 
Baptist Church, and was one of four in the county when 
the Rev. C. G-. Stevens of sainted memory projected and 
accomplished the organization of that wonderful body 
known as the Red Gap Baptist Association, which not 


^nly included the churches in tliis County, but finally 
jmbraced all the territory to El Paso and Now Mexico. 

There now exists a Cisco Baptist Association which 
inchides all the organi^iations in the County with two or 
three exception-. The locations, names of pastor and 
present membership follow : 

Carbon— W. B. Cobb, 83. 

Cisco— G. W. Sherman. 239. 

Corinth— E. M. Hunt, 67. 

Curtis— G. P. May, 46 

Eastland^,!. L. Mayes, llo. 

Elm Creek— J. H. Vinson. 78. 

Gorman- — J. H. Vinson, 1S2. 

Harmony — J. L. Mayes, 48. 

Jewell- — W. L. Ayers, 59. 

Liberty Hill— S. C. Steel, 34. 

Long Branch — E. M. Hunt. 114. 

Meriman — J. L. Mayes, 59. 

Midway— J. J. McCord, 91. 

Monroe— D. G. Wells, 113. 

Mount Olive— J. J. McCord, 49. 

New Hope— E. M. Hunt, 35. 

Pleasant Hill, No. 1— George W. Parks, 56. 

Pleasant Valley— E. M. Hunt, 68. 

Eanger- — Z. H. Eeag,an, 41. 

Rich— I. Lamh, 10. 

Eising Star— D. G. Wells, 29. 

Round Mountain— G. W. Parks, 61. 

Union— G. P. May, 41. 

Union Grove— D. G. Wells, 29. 

There is an organization at Desdomona, one near 


Pioneer and one at Ellison's Springs. Rev. C. Brash- 
on rs is pastor of the last named. 

One interesting feature of the work of this associa- 
tion is that it keeps a missionary continually in the field. 
Rev. I. D. Hull, the present Associational Missionary, 
has served several years. Last year the amount reported 
paid to missions — home and foreign — was $875.31. 
This did not include the $295.18 paid to the Buokner 
Orphans' EPome, $52 foi ministerial education, nor 
$29.30 for the poor. 

Rev. J. M. Reynolds, one of the Missionary Evangel- 
ists appointed by the State Board of the Baptist Conven- 
tion, lives in Cisco. 


Other Churches.* 

The Rising Star Cumberland Presbyterian 
Church was organized by Rev. D. A. Knox in July, 
. 1885, with fourteen members. 

Conspicuous in the early history of the church ap- 
pear the names of L. M. Miarshall, J. T. Winfield, H. 
W. Joyce, Maxwell brothers and Uticle George and Mila* 
Wood. Services were held in the piiblic school building 
and in the Methodist Church until 1893, when a house 
which is well situated in the northern part of town, was 
built. A comfortable manse is situated on the ad- 
joining lots. 

The church is well officered by a board of six elders 
and one deacon, and has a Sabbath school under the ef- 

*■ See Preface. 


ticient management of Prof. G. C. Barnes. The contri- 
butions for the different enterprises for the year 1903 
exceeded all amounts for previous years together. No 
public collections are taken. 

The present pastoi- is Eev. Z. T. Blanton. Perfect 
harmony prevails and it is hoped that this body may 
occupy its place as a persistent factor in the spiritual 
aplifiting of Eising Star and the surrounding country. 

Sajbanno Cumberland Presbyterian CHURCit. — 
This church was organized about 1886 by the Eev. T). A 
Knox. For several years the congregation worshipped 
in the school house, holding its revival meetings under a 
brush arbor. In the summer of 1896 a house was built, 
and since then a tent has been provided for revivals, 
■■.vhich are held annually. 

C. C. Bullock is the present pastor, with Messrs. Vv . 
A. Erwin, B. F. Shell and J. S. Erwin elders and W. P. 
Porter and J. Eobert Kincaid deacons. 

Liberty Cumberland Presbyterian Church. — 
This congregation was organized in 1898 with ten men> 
bers as the result of a revival meeting conducted by the 
•Eev. W. E. Green. 

As a church organization would not be allowed to oc- 
cupy the school house, Messrs. S. A. Fleming ( Cumber- 
land), Sam Webb (Baptist) and ,W. T. Boyd (Metho- 
dist) met and decided to build a union house for these 
denominations. This was done. Several revivals have 
been held, these denominations always co-operating. 

The Cumberland Presbyterian Church now has about 
forty members. Mlessrs. B. L. Marshall, Louis Mar- 
shall, G. B. Kelley, S. A. Flemings and John D. Walker 
are the present elders, with Eev. C. C. Bullock as pastor. 









The Banger Cxjmbeeland^ PEESBYTEEfAN Chueoi-i 
Rev. J. A. Williams, pastor, is in a thriving condi- 
tion, with a fine Sunday School and an active Woman's 
Foreign ilissionary Society. The organization has its 
own church building. 

In Cisco the Presbyterians have an excellent church 
building, well furnished. 

The Disciples of Christ have several organiza- 
tions and church buildings in the County. Eev. Mc- 
Kuight is the pastor of the Cisco congregation. R. C. 
Maddox is pastor of the congregation at Rising Star. 

iMrs. Mc. D. Hunter is pastor of the Holiness Church 
at Rising Star. 


School District No. 1. — Yiellow Mound, J. H. Jaee; 
Bedford, F. M. Anthony; Dark Hollow, R. B. Evans; 
Pleasant Valley, D. H. Stoddard. Trustees: R. T. 
White, J. H. Harbin, J. H. Robbins. 

School District No. 1 A. — Central, J. F. Dean, 
teacher. Trustees : J. B. Short, ;W. M. Eppler, W. C. 

School District No. 2. — Freedom, T. E. Payne; 
Union, Lillian Hatten ; Lone Cedar, Sara Poe. Trus- 
tees: L. J. Spann, J. R. Higgins, H. Brashears. 

School District No. 3. — Pleasant Yalley, Maude Mur- 
phy; High Point, E. Lafoon; Grapevine, E. C. Mur- 
phy; Flat Woods, L. D. Harlin. Trustees : D. PI. Col- 
lins, J. H. Bransford, J. AV. Robinson. 

School District No. 4. — Conner, Myrtle Medearis; 
Owen, J. A. Brashears; Cross Roads, C. P. Webb; Mer- 


riman, W. C. Higgins; Colony, H. C. Pelphrey. Trus- 
tees: W. A. Hise, Floyd Brewer, Charles Barker. 

School District No. 5. — Triumph, Mattie Gatewood. 
Trustees : S. D. Shugart, Z. Z. Butler, W. A. Davis. 

School District No. fi. — Eush Creek, J. E. Brvin. 
Trustees: W. D. Messimcr, A. P. Barton, J. F. Myers. 

School District No. 7.- — Tuder, J. W. Harmon. 
Trustees : 0. W. Pollard, D. A. Harris, S. H. Boggus. 

School District No. 8. — Lone Star, Ettinm Mahan. 
Trustees : Ed Parker, J. T. Jobe, H. P. Thomas. 

School District No. 9. — Nash Creek, J. B. Jordan; 
Nash Creek, Mrs. Jessie Sawell. Ttustees: E. N. 
Echols, J. T. Earnest, E. A. McDonald. 

School District No. 10. — Alemieda, E. E, Boucher; 
Young Springs, Fannie Koonce. Trustees A. J. Will- 
iams; A. S. Chauncey, Joe Jones. 

School District No. 11. — Eogers, F. E. King, Pearl 
Brabbin. Trustees : E. P. Nix, A. T. Lowe, Hue G-uy. 

School District No. 13.— Jewell, H. M. Hayes, Pearl 
Mayes. Trustees: E. F. Simms, W. M. Mane, W. J. 

School District No. 13.— High Knot, Pearl Chas- 
tain. Hall Mark, J. E. T;anier; Center Point, Mamie 
Lovett. Trustees: T. J. Hilton, J. T. Brown, Will 

School District No. 14. — Eockwell, W. J. Justice; 
Bluff Branch, W. P. Caldwell; Sandy, Bessie Gray; 
Liberty Hill, H. W. Gotcher. Trustees, J. W. Stamps, 
James Caradine, Eobert Cove. 

School District No. 15.— Wood, H. C. Overby; Reich, 
Miss TJlala Howard; Cozart, W. D. Hazel. Trustees: 
J. P. Montgomlery, J. P. Leverage, J. H. Ward. 


School District No. 15 A. — JSTimrod, Adelle Keith; 
Mitchell, Dora Stewart; Hobart, Alice Davidson. Trus- 
tees: B. B. Hogan, R. C. Pass, S. L. Yeage. 

School District No. 16. — Cook, W. Bashabranner: 
Curtis, Will Allen; Ballard, P. P. Holbrook. Trustees : 
A. J. Woodjke, E. H. Jiearce, J. F. NichoJp. 

School District No. 17.— Long Branch, N. F. Brit- 
ton; Eomney, W. J. Moreland; Pleasant Hill, R. P. 
Moreland; G-riggs, Charles Parker. Trustees: Henry 
Milligan, \V. L. Brayden, W. L. Barnett. 

School District No. 18. — Hickman, Eva Grume 
Trustees: G. B. Mullings, W. H. Hughs, S. W. H. 

School District 18 A. — -Macedonia, Ola Little. Trus- 
teep : E. C. Lane, H. B. Anderson, J. A. Haynes. 

School District No. 19. — Pioneer, F. W. Mullins,, 
JuHa Mullins. Trustees: S. P. Stovall, F. C. Mc- 
Bride, W. E. W. Smith. 

School District No. 30. — Wheat, Mts. May Harri- 
son. Trustees, J. W. Adams, J. A. Porterfield, F. M. 

School District No. ?1.— Burnley, M. D. Mullings; 
Sabano, W. F. Walker. Trustees: W. T. Boyd, J. T. 
Blackwell, J. S. Erwin. 

School District No. 33. — Mountain, Ollin Kinnison. 
Trustees: C. H. Gunoway, R. S. Hoon, J. L. Fonville. 
School District No. 23. — Howard, Bascomb Mor- 
ton. Trustees, W. S. Prater, J. B. Kizer, J. H. Little. 
School District No. 24. — Leon, J. T. Singleton. 
Trustees: W. E. Vaughi. J. W. Blair, J. iW. Watson, 
J. AV. Pitman. 

School District No. 25.— Elm, J. S. Purdy. Trus- 

2l4 titSTOB f 01^ BlASrtAiil) VO tjNTf. 

tees: W. P. Orr, E. M. Gaun, J. BP. Prichard, W. H. 

School District No. 26. — Grigsby, Jamep H. Bat- 
man; Jett, 0. A. Fleming. Trustees: J. G. Burgess, 
D. P. Taylor, Gus Payne 

School District No. 27. — Glrand View, C. P. Jones, 
Mrs. Lassie Jones. Trustees: W. H. Westmoreland, 
J. D. Barton, J. W. Garter. 

School District No. 28.— Peak, J. "B. MkiEntire. 
Trustees : Bill Dill, J. 0. Harris, J. E. Tune. 

School District No. 29. — Desdeniona. J. Hi. Hanldns, 
Mrs. J . H. H'ankins. Trustees : J. E. Brown, J. A. Cope- 
land, F. B. Terry. 

School District No. 30. — Okra, J. 0. Bashaw.. 
Trustees : D. M. Jacobs, H. B. Shiley, ,W. H. Mimms. 

School District No. 31. — Union, Gypson Crossland, 
Miss Lillian Hatton. Trustees: S. H. Code. J. L. 
Brown, H. D. Marshall. 

School District No 32. — Salem, W. T. Skinner. 
Trustees: W. N. Hickey, G. E. Hamilton, J. M. Moore. 

School District No.. 33.— New Hope, M. H. Per- 
kins. Trustees: J. L. Brown, W. S. Martin. W. D. 

School District No. 34.— Delmer. J. S. Bond. Trus- 
tees : Will Conn, J. E. Duneway, J. H. Kyle. 

School District No. 35.— Bullock, J. A. Sander- 
ford. Trustees : J. S. Williams, L. M. Cook, A. J. Al- 
lison, C. L. Hodges. 

School District No. 36.— Oak Grove, H. C. Poe. 
Trustees: J. E. Lanier, \. N. Pbe. 

School District No, 37'.— Yellow Branch, E. E. 


Sprawls. Trustees: A. G. Vuunoy, M. M. Doyle, Eli 
Lienliy, il. G. Eobertson. 

School District No. 38. — Britton, Annie Brooks, 
R&mie Brooks. Trustees: A. C. Brown, H. B. Bue, 
R. L. Eowe, F. M. Stone. 


CisL-o. — Superintendent, E. L. Abbott; A. V Britton, 
W.T. Bachelor. E. Jung, Miss Bettie Harbison, Miss An- 
na Lee Fisher, Miss Annie Laurie Brown, Miss Frederic 
Mosley, Miss Sadie Yarnell — Miss Martha Conner 
Green, Primary. Trustees. L. E. Brannin, President; W. 
L. Armstrong, Vice President; Dr. W. P. Lee, Secre- 
tary Arthur Grist, Treasurer; J. M. Williamson, Judge 
D. K. Scott, T. J. Worthington. 

Gorman — Superintendent. A. C. Ferguson; A. H. 
King, Alex Allen, Mrs. Tranquil McDaniel. Miss Claire 
Eush; Art, Miss Bailey. Trustees : J. Q. Eppler, Pres- 
ident; T. L. Gates, Secretary and Treasurer; W. S. 
Wood, J. A. Jones, W. L. Terry. W. P. Burleson, E. F. 

Carbon. — J. Speed Carroll, Superintendent; W. J. 
Allison, Binkley Drake, Miss Eebecca White. Miss John- 
nie Reed. Trustees: S. P. Finley, President: E. H. 
Boyett, Secretary; J. F. Edmondson, Treasurer; E. L. 
Littleton, T. L. Tucker, J. E. Foster, A. B,.?ton. 

Scranton. — 0. C. Britton, Superintendent; C. C. 
Bullock, Mrs. J. S. Bond; Miss Lillian Bell, Music. 
Trustees: A. M. Sprawls, President; F. G. Boyd. Sec- 
retary; W. T. Eutherford, Treasurer; W. T. Gattis, As- 


sessor and Collector: W. D. Clinton, J. J. Eay, J. R. 

Eanger. — C. D. Judd, J. E. Peters, Co-Principals; 
Miss Ira Maxwell, Miss Jessie Cooper. Trustees: F. "\^. 
Melvin, President; B. P. Davenport, Secretary; W. R. 
Hodges, Treasurer; E. L. Page, J. H. Harrison, H. W. 
Hilliard, J. M. Eice. 

Rising Star. — E. H. Jones, Geo. F. Barnes, Prin- 
cipals; Mss Osie Hickman, Miss Minnie Brewer. Miss 
Erie Eich; J. E. Wells, Music; Miss Harmon Barber, 
Elocution. Trustees: H. E. Anderson, President; A. 
I. Rhone, Secretary; W. S. Michael, Treasurer; F. B. 
Weaver, Collector; W. C. White, J. A. Terrel, E. Garner. 

Eastland. — W. A. Bynum, Superintendent; Miss 
J osie Garner, Mrs. Julia Mayes, Miss Minnie Mood. 
Trustees: C. IT. Connellee, President; E. Eoper, Sec- 
retary; M. Hill, Treasurer; J. E. Frost, J. J. Morgan, 
S. J. Day, J. T. Morton. 

County Judges. 
J. H. Calhoun, April, 1876; resigned October. 1877, 

A. Lawrence, 1877-78. 

J. T. Hammons, 1878-1882. 
E. M. Black, 1882-86. 
J. T. Hammions, 1880-88. 
D. K. Scott, 1888-1893. 
W. G. Davenport, 1892-94. 
G. W. Dakan, 1894-96. 

B. F. Chastain, 1896-98. 
G. W. Dakan, 1898-1900. 

J. E. Stubblefield, 1900-1902. 


Present County Ottfioers. 
S. A. Bryant, Judge. 
Ed T. Cox, Clerk. 
G. W. Redford, Sheriff. 
George Davenport, County Attorney. 
D. E. Jones, Tax Collector. 
W. C. Moore, Tax Assessor. 
Walter Clegg, Treasurer. 
J. H. Calhoun, District Judge. 
Mr. Cunningham, District Attorney. 
R. L. Davenport, District Clerk. 
Homer P. Brelsford, Representative. 
Mr. Sebastian, Breckenridge, Senator. 
Judge W. R. Smith, Colorado, Congressional Repre- 


By PitoF. W. F. Cummins 

The geology of Eastland County is very simple, as 
the strata belong to only two of the great geological 
series, the carboniferous and cretaceous. The cretaceous 
i"! found only along the southern border of the County. 
This formation forms no very great nor conspicuous 
area in the County, and consists principally of "sand 
roughs." The areas were once covered by be,ds of lime- 
stone, which has long since been eroded and the sands 
are the remnants of a once continuous bed that covered 
the whole country to the foot of the mountains west of 
the Pecos River. The beds belong to the Trinity saiid 
formation, and forms a part of the catchment area that 


supplies with water the great artesian water belt lying 
to the southeastward. This area was originally cov- 
ered with a dense growth of dwarf oaks. The surface 
is generally level, very few of the hills being promi- 
nent. The term rolling i? very applicable to this phase 
of topography. A friable sand of variable thickness 
deposited upon a hard floor of Paleozoic rocks, and 
subjected to the action of the prevailing atmospheric 
agencies, has given this character of topography. 

The remainder of the County belongs to the carbon- 
iferous period. In describing the carboniferous in 
Texas I divided the strata into these divisions : 

5. Cisco. 4. Canyon. 3. Strawn. 2. Millsap. 
1. Bend. 

The Cisco division is the highest and most recent 
of the divisions. One traveling westward along the 
Texas and Pacific Eailroad goes off the cretaceous on to 
the Millsap division of the carboniferous about two 
miles east of Millsap. He would go off to the carbon- 
iferous about half way between Baird and Putnam. The 
Bend Division does not occur at the surface anvwhere 
in this part of the State, but has been found in deep 
wells at Thurber and Fort Worth. 

The following sketch will show the relative posi- 
tion of the divisions as they occur in this part of the 

It is unnecessary to give a description of any of the 
divisions except that of the Canyon and Cisco. The 
Canyon division occurs in the eastreji part of the Coun- 
ty, and was so named from the prominence with which 
some of the strata are seen at Canyon, in the western 


part of Palo Pinto County, along the line of the Tejcas 
and Pacific Raihvaj'. This division is composed very 
largely of massive limestone, and may be easily recog- 
nized by this fact, the limestone in the other divisions 
being much thinner bedded. 

The beds of the Cisco division are well exposed in 
the vicinity of Cisco, and the. division was so named for 
this reason. The strata are mostly composed of con- 
glomerates, sandstones, clays and shales. This division 
txtends from northeast to southwest through the en- 
lire county. It is distinguished by its stratigraphic 
position below, it being found always in the heavy beds 
of the Canyon division. 

The strata of the cretaceous dip tf) the .southeast, 
while the strata of the carboniferous dip to the north- 
west, in an exactly opposite direction. The dip of the 
carboniferous is at the rate of about sixty feet to the 
mile. This fact will preclude the notion that flowing 
artesian water can be found at Cisco or vicinity, the 
recurving area being lower than any point to the west- 
ward, and water will not rise higher than its source. 

There are nine coal seams in the carboniferous 
formation in Texas. Wlien I made ray rf^port on the 
coal fields of Texas, the first section of the coal measures 
ever published in Texas, I numbered these beds from 
one to nine inclusive. Only two of these seams are 
thick enough to be of any commercial value. These 
are numbers two and seven. Number two is found at 
Thurber, Eock Creek and Bridgeport. JSTumbej seven 
is found in Eastland, Young, Jack and Mbntague Coun- 
ties. Some attempts have been made to develop the 
coal in the vicinity of Cisco, in Eastland County, but 

S30 aistoR r oP ma stla nd go untt. 

without any very great success. The outcrops of this 
seam in the northern portion of this County are nu- 
merous. The seam is twenty inches thick, with a band 
of slate above it, followed by a seam of coal four inchch 
tliick. The band of slate is from four to ten inches 
thick between the coal seams. At another place where 
I examined this seam are nine inches of coal and twenty 
inches of bituminous shale. This shale will burn when 
put on the fire, but loses none of its bulk in burning, 
and is absolutely worthless as a fuel. The difficulty 
in working this seam of coal in this vicinity is the fact 
of the thinness of the seam^ and the furtlier fact that 
if both seams are mined the stratum of bituminous shale 
will have to be taken out of the mine, for it is so 
highly impregnated with sulphuret of iron that when 
the material is exposed to the atm&sphere and it slacks, 
the sulphuric acid escaping will set the whole mass on 

There are no other minerals in this County of any 
economical value. Gold and silver have been reported 
at several places, but the amount has always been so 
small that it would not pay to develop. Iron occurs 
at many places in several fornis, but it is always of 
too smiall a percentage of metallic iron to be of any 
commercial value. 

'f.l''-' .' '■•*